丝路

丝路(Silk Road)1

参考资料

http://zh.unesco.org/silkroad/

http://zh.unesco.org/silkroad/network-silk-road-cities-map-app/zh

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丝路是什么样?

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这条东西通路,将中华、西域与阿拉伯、孟加拉湾紧密联系在协同。

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丝绸之路(阿尔Barney亚语:die
Seidenstrasse),简称为丝绸之路,最早来自德意志联邦共和国数学家费迪南·冯·李希霍芬
(Ferdinand von Richthofen)187七年出版的《中华人民共和国——小编的远足成果》(China,
Ergebnisse eigener 雷斯en)。
丝路日常是指欧亚西边的商路,与南边的茶马古道形成比较,南梁时张子文和明代时班定远出使西域开辟的以长安(今苏州)、镇江为起源,经新疆、福建,到中亚、西亚,并联合克利特海各国的大6通道。那条道路也被号称“陆路丝路”,以分别日后此外两条冠以“丝绸之路”名称的交通路线。因为由那条路西运的货物中以天鹅绒制品的影响最大,故得此名。其大旨走向定于两汉年代。
广义的丝路指从上古开始陆续形成的,遍及欧亚大六甚至包涵北非和东非在内的长距离商贸和文化交换线路的总称。除上述路线之外,还包含约前伍世纪形成的草地丝路,中古初年形成,在北周发挥巨大功效的水路丝路和与西南丝路同时出现,在宋初代表西南丝绸之路成为旅途调换通道的北边丝路。
虽说丝路是沿线各国1道促进经济贸易发展的产物,但过多少人觉着,中夏族民共和国的博望侯四遍出使西域,开辟了海内外调换的新纪元。从此,那条路径就变成了“国道”,各国大使、商人沿着张子文开通的征途,进行交易。那条东西通路,将中华、西域与阿拉伯、波罗的海紧凑联系在一齐。经过多少个世纪的缕缕大力,丝路往东伸展到了琼州海峡。广义上丝绸之路的东段已经到达了高丽国、东瀛,西段至法兰西、荷兰王国。通过海路还可达意国、埃及(Egypt),成为南美洲和亚洲、欧洲各国经济文化交换的情分之路。

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丝路是野史上横贯欧亚大陆的交易交通线,在历史上促进了欧亚非各国和华夏的友好往来。

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唐朝时期,在黑龙江流域、两河流域、印度河流域和莱茵河流域之北的草野上,有着一线由许多不连贯的小范围交易路线大体衔接而成的草地之路。这点早就被沿路诸多的考古发现所验证。那条路正是最早的丝路的雏形。
早先时代的丝路上并不是以化学纤维为关键贸易物资,在公元前一5世纪左右,中华夏族民共和国际商业信贷银行户就曾经出入塔克拉玛干沙漠边缘,购买产自现广东地区的和田玉石,同时贩卖海贝等沿海特产,同中亚地区开始展览小范围贸易往来。而良种马及别的符合长途运输的动物也伊始时时刻刻被人们所运用,令广大的交易文化沟通成为恐怕。比如阿拉伯半岛的常常使用,耐渴、耐旱、耐饿的单峰骆驼,在公元前11世纪便用于酒店运输。而分散在亚欧大六的雅利安人和斯基泰人据传在公元前3一世纪左右即起来饲养马。双峰骆驼则在不久后也被运用在经济贸易旅行中。别的,欧亚大陆各地是广大的草原和肥沃的土地,对于游牧民族和商队运输的家禽而言能够随时四处安定下来,就近补给水、食品和燃料。那样壹支商队、旅行队或武装能够在沿线各强国未有留神到她们的存在或激发敌意的气象下,实行旷日持久,持久而路途遥远的远足。

壹、月氏:(yuèzhī或ròuzhī)为公元前三世纪至公元一世纪1个民族名称。早期以游牧为生,住在今中国的青海就地,并平日与匈奴爆发争辩,到新兴被匈奴攻击,壹分为2:西迁至伊犁的,被称之为大月氏;居留于中华浙江及湖南的祁连四川南麓左近的,被喻为小月氏。这时,月支初始发展,稳步具有国家的雏型。由于大月氏位处于丝路,控制着东西贸易,使它逐步变得强大。《辽朝书•西羌传》记载:月氏“棉被和衣服饮食言语略与羌同”,表明月氏的言语很大概属于汉加泰罗尼亚语系。

二、祆(xiān)教:即琐罗亚斯德教是流行于南梁波斯(今伊朗)及中亚等地的宗教,中华夏族民共和国史称祆教、火祆教、拜火教。相传为公元前六世纪琐罗亚斯德创。波斯萨珊王朝奉为国教。其教创善、恶2元论,以火为善神的意味。南北朝时传入中夏族民共和国后又称“火祆教”或“祆教”。孙吴曾一度于长安建祠盛行,并立官专管。
武宗反佛后渐废不传。琐罗亚斯德教是东正教诞生在此以前中东和西亚最有影响的宗教,古代波斯帝国的国教,曾被佛信众贬称为“拜火教”。琐罗亚斯德教的福音壹般认为是神学上的1神论和教育学上的2元论。琐罗亚斯德教的经典首假如《阿维斯塔》,意为知识、谕令、或经典,通称《波斯古经》。

有关丝绸之路

简介
人类历史在频频搬迁中迈入,随之产生的是几度的商品沟通,以及技巧和思想的交换。那样的通讯与贸易之路在欧亚大陆上复杂,在历史上慢慢形成了我们前几天所称的丝路。丝路覆盖着路上和海上交通,来自各个区域的人们在此沿线开始展览着棉布与别的货品的贸易。海上丝路将东方与西方以航空线连接起来,是广义上的丝路的要紧组成都部队分。海上之路曾经是贸易香料的首要渠道,后来被人们以香水之路而理解。
只是这么些庞然大物的互联网承载的不只是货物的交易。频仍的运动和人数的交集引起了知识、思想、文化和信仰的交换,给亚欧人的野史和文化带来了深切的影响。在沿线城市上这样的牵记文化调换不断进化,慢慢形成了三个教育与文化宗旨,吸引着行客们踏上那条商路。自然科学、艺术、法学以及手工业艺和技能在此间被分享与传播。随之,语言、宗教和文化也在分级发展中相互发生了影响。
实则“丝路”只是现代的1种叫法。在其漫长的野史中,那条古老的征途并从未1个适中的名字。十玖世纪前期,德意志联邦共和国物农学家,费迪南·冯·李希霍芬,把那些经商之道命名称叫Die
Seidenstrasse (丝路),神秘且令人浮想联翩。

化学纤维的营造与贸易
丝绸是将蚕茧中提取的蛋白纤维编织而制成的纺织品。化学纤维塑造技艺来源于北魏中夏族民共和国,公元前约三千七百多年。作为价值极高的手工业制品,化学纤维被中中原人民共和国宫廷保留为御用时装、家庭纺织、横幅以及任何外交赠品。福建省意识的公元前三到四世纪的古墓里出土了一堆优质的绸缎,包蕴锦缎,纱和绢绣,以最古老的全体的丝征时装。
化学纤维的生产进度被严酷保密了约三千年。当时朝廷对个人向瑞士人走漏化学纤维生产进度的处分是死罪。中中原人民共和国在制丝业上的独占并从未使其消费商场局限于中华夏族民共和国。一方面,丝绸作为外交贡品流入他国。另1方面,天鹅绒贸易也直接格外频仍:开首仅是向邻国销售,而后推广到更远的国家。到清代(公元前20陆年到公元220年)时,棉布已变成了中华夏族民共和国的严重性出口产品。近期阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)、北蒙古等地都出土了中华在汉时代的纺品。
公元前一世纪,化学纤维传入开普敦帝国。化学纤维被视为颇具异国风情的奢华品而变得极为流行,甚至使得拉各斯帝国颁发诏令以控制其标价。棉布的风行平昔被接续到中世纪。当时天鹅绒既是皇家使用的特出面料,也是财政的重要性来源。拜占庭对于化学纤维塑造的惨酷法令规定也反映了丝绸的格外地点。其它,拜占庭教堂对于丝克服装与室内装饰须求也卓越大。由此,棉布成为了北美洲至远东的商路发展的初期重力之壹。
至于制丝技术的文化在立即是极度可贵的。就算中华人民共和国朝廷竭力保密制作方法,那么些隐衷依旧在华夏外传出开来。在公元前6世纪,此项技术率先流传到了印度和东瀛,接着传播到波斯王国,最后到西天。在公元陆世纪,历文学家普罗科匹厄斯描述道:大致在1如既往时期
[公元前550年],印度的壹部分僧人来到了波士顿帝国。他们说服了查士丁尼大帝达拉斯不该再从波斯购入天鹅绒,并落成了她们从中中原人民共和国带回到的养蚕缫丝的技术传授给奥斯6的缔约,以便休斯敦以往驳回从其敌国波斯或然其余任何国家购买棉布。那几个僧侣们说在此以前她俩在二个菲律宾人日常到访的地面,Serinda,完全控制了创立丝绸的措施。其它,僧侣们对频频追问试探他们的皇帝说,蚕是丝绸的制作者,大自然在敦促他们时时刻刻创设天鹅绒。虽说不可能直接将火蚕运输过来,不过蚕的繁育却很不难。一堆蚕卵能够孵化出无数只幼虫,而稠人广众只需在孵化后用粪便盖住幼虫作为保暖,直至它们成长为成虫。僧侣们分享了这几个音信之后,他们与帝王完成了约定并重回了印度。当她们将蚕卵带回拜占庭,教其上述养殖形式,将蚕卵孵化成幼虫,以树叶来调理。奥克兰帝国的制丝艺术之路就此伊始。

化学纤维之外:丝路商品的三种性
固然如此棉布贸易是中亚商道的最早的催化剂之壹,那仅仅是东、西方之间交易的大规模商品中的一类。其余商品包涵棉布之外的纺织品、调味品、粮食、蔬菜和水果、动物皮草、工具、木工、五金、宗教物品、艺术品、宝石等等。
在中世纪,丝路开头流行,人们的来回更为多,直至1九世纪,人们还在应用那条经商之道。那不仅表明丝路的重要,还注明其弹性和适应性能够满意不断升华变化的社会必要。这一个经商之道也并从未沿着任何特定道路

商人们频仍自由采用通向南欧、中东、中亚地区和远东多少个地面包车型客车例外交通路线。除陆路之外,商人们还足以采用从中华和东东南亚,经由北冰洋到澳洲、印度和近东的海上丝路。
纵观历史,依照时间的延迟和地缘政治环境的变化,丝路也直接提升。例如,慕尼姬乾荒国的商贩们为了规避经过杜塞尔多夫之敌区帕提亚领土,选取了向西出发,经过高加索地区,途经爱奥尼亚海的路线。相似地,中世纪初期,频仍的经济贸易往来产生在横跨中亚的河道运输网上。与此同时,那条河道中的水位时而上涨时而下落,有时衰竭,那条交易之路也相应的变换。
海上贸易是当下另3个极其主要的社会风气贸易互连网。其最盛名的用处是香料运输,来自印尼摩鹿加群岛(以香料岛之名而有名)的大红袍、胡椒、姜、丁子香和豆蔻必要全世界市场。故海上丝路又被称呼‘香料之路’。商人经由丝路,交易纺织品、木制品、宝石、金属制品、香料、木材和藏红花。丝路超越10伍万英里,从东瀛西海岸,经过中夏族民共和国海岸线、东南亚和印度平素到中东和爱尔兰海。海上丝路连接了阿拉伯半岛,美索不达米亚和印度河流域的,其历史足以追溯到几千年前。在中世纪初,来自阿拉伯半岛的海员们开发并了超越爱琴海直到印度洋的新加坡航空公司线,海上丝路网络也为此扩充。实际上,早在八世纪,阿拉伯与华夏里边的海上贸易通行已开头确立。
航海术、天工学和造船术的升华实现了远程的海上旅行。位李圣龙上丝路沿岸的城池因港口而扩充起来,如桑给巴尔,Alerander,南京,和果阿。这么些城市平时有来来往往的经纪人和船员以及周边的集市,也是货物、思想、语言和信教的置换的为主,因此成为了财物的集聚地。15世纪末期,葡萄牙共和国(República Portuguesa)探险家达伽马,在好望角四周航行,那是欧洲水手初次参预东东南亚海上贸易。到了16、17世纪,丝路和它的创收富厚的贸易成为了葡萄牙共和国、荷兰王国和United Kingdom里头可以竞争的纽带。这一个殖民国家给他俩攻克的海上之路沿岸港口带来了财物和保持。他们有效治理了海上贸易通道,授权当地权力部门对于需求巨大的舶来品的垄断举办政管理理,并针对商船征收了大宗的税款。
上边地图展现了种种分化的新大6与海上经商之道。来自世界各省的商贾靠着这些交通网络运输交易着品种丰硕的商品。商人的驼队经常选用在1部分路段停留。他们或稍作歇息、补充用品,或留下扎营做购买销售。那样的停留点遍布整个丝路,沿线城市和湖州由此日新月异。
丝路既活跃又有渗透性。商人们与土著做买卖,将外来商品卖给本地人的还要也购得并带领各州的土产品。丝路不仅仅助长了商行的物质能源与商品的两种性,还助长了在丝路上沿线的学识、语言、思想的调换。

沟通与对话
兴许在有着的丝路的剧中人物中,最有历史意义的即其对差异地方的大千世界竞相沟通往来的促进作用。在执行层面上,商人们若要成功地进行谈判就必须学习他们所经国家的言语和乡规民约习惯。由此文化交换是物质调换的二个至关心珍视要因素。其它,许多行客为了感受沿线城市的学问和文化调换而踏上了那条冒险之路。
翻过丝路的沿线区域分享了不错、艺术、管理学以及手工业艺和技巧的文化。同时,语言、宗教和文化也在独家的前行中互相影响。通过丝路在世界范围内拿到传播的最盛名的技能包涵造纸术以及印刷术。类似地,由于获得了行客的上学和扩散,整其中亚地区的灌溉系统普遍拥有相似个性。这一个行客不仅带走和传唱自个儿的学问,同时也吸收了差异社会的本麻芋果化技术。
在公元前2世纪,将军张子文开辟了第一个从中国至西方的丝路。聊到那位勇猛,比起贸易开拓者队(Portland Trail Blazers),他更是一个人外交官。刘彻在公元前13玖年,联盟海外,以反抗中中原人民共和国的传世仇人—匈奴。张子文被派往南部时,被匈奴抓获并被幽禁起来。十三年后,他越狱并逃回了中华,给汉世宗讲述了丰裕的经历及细节并做了有个别详尽的告知。在公元前11玖年,汉世宗又派张子文拜访邻国,建立叁个最初从中华到中亚的门道。
宗教和求知成为了人人沿线的远足的胸臆。到印度取经后将圣文带回中国的道人们在途中书写的远足日记,近年来是关于丝路的首要考据。唐僧在62玖至公元到654年的25年之间写下的日记不仅拥有伟大的历史价值,同时也启示了16世纪神魔小说的降生。“西游记”,即那样壹部中华夏族民共和国太古的经文之作。在中世纪,南美洲的行者胜任外交和宗教使团,访问南部。吉奥瓦尼da Pian del Carpini在1二四五年至12肆7年由教皇Innocent
4世派出访问蒙古;随后,佛兰德方济各会修士威尔iam of
Rubruc在1二五3年至125伍年由法国天皇路易9世派出,再次走访蒙古汗国。当中最出名的应属威也门萨那探险家马可(英文名:mǎ kě)·Polo。他的出境游约于1271和1292之内,长达20多年。他离世后其书写的游记在亚洲变得极受欢迎。
横跨全体欧亚大六的路线是宗教的传入基础。东正教是丝路沿途上宗教传播二个事例。在阿富汗巴米扬、在华夏衡山以及在印度尼西亚婆罗佛塔都留有基督教艺术圣地和寺观东正教,伊斯兰教,孔雀之国教,琐罗亚斯德教和一神教以一般的法子传播。行客们收到他们所收受到的学识,并将那个不相同的文化分享给自身的亲生。如此,印度教和东正教被经纪人们经过海上丝路从印度和阿拉伯引进到印度尼西亚和马来西亚。

走动在丝路上
丝路本身的进化基于人们在其区域的交通往来。在中世纪,马或骆驼是商队在6路物流上的卓绝情势。丝路上的旅舍是专程为了大型长途旅行商队所设计的。那一个公寓对于这条路子上人和货物的通畅发挥了要害的效劳。通过对土耳其(Turkey)到中夏族民共和国那一段丝路的调查可得,那一个公寓不仅为客人提供了可口的饭菜和自贡的作息地觉得现在的路程做准备,同时也提供了与本地市集交流货物、贸易和购销地方产品并与其他商户们交换的阳台,促进商户们竞相调换文化、语言和讨论。
随着丝路发展壮大,沿线的营生机会更加多。酒馆饭店日渐其需,从10世纪初叶,酒店旅社的建立遍布了壹切中亚地区,一向接二连三至1九世纪。这么些饭馆饭馆网,从中华延复月印度大洲、伊朗、高加索、土耳其(Turkey)、北非、俄罗丝和东欧国家。在那之中部分酒店饭馆现今尚存。旅社饭店的地方是依据丝路上每壹天的里程来分布的。这样商人和别的行客能够免止数天数夜停留在风险重重的丝路上,并维护保养货物的安全。平均每30至40英里就会有部分饭馆旅舍,周边环境维护较好。
野史上商家在长时间的海上贸易旅程中面临着不相同的搦战。至中世纪以来,航海术,尤其是造船术的提高,提升了海上旅行的荆门。在中世纪,对船员们最大的勒迫之一正是不够饮用水。海上沿线丝路港口的进步,不仅为经纪人贸易提供做购买销售的机会,而且保险了淡水供应。商船所面临的另1种高危机是海盗。船上利润富厚的货品往往成为海盗的靶子。
丝路遗产
在1九世纪,考古学家、物工学家以及部分热心肠的探险者踏上了棉布的探险之路。来自法兰西共和国、英国、德意志联邦共和国、俄罗丝和日本,那个钻探者通过中华夏族民共和国北边,今位王燊超南的塔克拉玛干沙漠,沿着丝绸之路追寻古迹。因他们的进献,目前有诸多考古学上的意识和大气的学术研商。那几个发现使得丝绸之路之历史又再度引起了世道的爱戴。
今昔,许多历史建筑和回顾碑、标志着丝绸之路通道的饭馆饭店、港口和城市尚存。不一样但互相关系的文化、语言、民俗和宗派在丝绸之路上升高了上千年,恰是历史悠久的丝路的投射。商人们及广大不等国籍的观光客的过往不仅在经济贸易交换上,而且在知识融为一体的进程中,带来了接连不断并广泛的熏陶。从初期的探索阶段初叶,丝路渐渐变成横跨欧亚大6上,促进社会的形成的带重力。

连带链接:
韦德娱乐1946手机版,UNESCO Integral Study of the Silk Roads, Roads of
Dialogue

Recommendations for transnational heritage corridors of Silk Roads site
nomination

Caravanserais
History of civilizations of Central
Asia

二1 世纪 新丝绸之路

image.png

image.png

丝路经济带和2一世纪的海上丝路 (Belt & Road, B&ENVISION)
是一项发展战略性和框架, 重点是国家间的连通性和合营,
主就算华夏里头还有欧亚大6的其余地点它由三个至关心重视要组成都部队分, 陆上
“丝路经济带” (SREB) 和远洋 “海上丝路” (MS奥迪Q三)
与战略安插发表于20壹五年。 自那时以来,
已在这一发起中支出了成都百货上千划算带和道路中央、研讨所、出版物、网站和内阁分支机构。中夏族民共和国期待创造2个新的经济区,
从中国, 包含拥有的国家在亚欧大6组成的东南亚国家缔盟成员国, 印度的亚欧国家,
法国巴黎合营协会的成员国,中东南非国家, 西亚国度, 南美洲和东非的一有的。
它归纳大约拥有主要的大千世界经济实体 (除去美洲, 澳国和新西兰, 西非,
高丽国和东瀛等与U.S.A.涉嫌密切的经济体)。

The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road,
also known as The Belt and Road (B&R) is a development strategy and
framework, proposed in 2013 by Xi Jinping that focuses on connectivity
and cooperation among countries primarily between the China and the rest
of Eurasia. It composes of two main components, the land-based “Silk
Road Economic Belt” (SREB) and oceangoing “Maritime Silk Road” (MSR)
with a strategic plan issued in 2015. Since then, numerous Belt and Road
centres, institutes, publications, web sites and Government branches
have been developed on this initiative. In a nut shell, China wants to
create a new economic zone that spans from China to include all the
countries on the Eurasian continents comprising of ASEAN member nations,
Indian Sub continent countries, SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization)
member nations, countries of MENA (Middle East North Africa), West Asian
countries, Europe and part of East Africa. It includes almost ALL of the
major global economic entities minus Americas, Australia and New
Zealand, West Africa, Korea and Japan –political economic powers that
traditionally closely linked with USA .

从地缘政治的角度来看, 中中原人民共和国对欧亚大陆的影响,
平素是自U.S.A.撤离阿富汗/伊拉克和苏联解体以来的2个权力真空,
以抵消United States在亚太地区 re-asserting 的震慑。尤其是自从前美利坚总统政党。 其余,
中国行使经济而非军事或知识能力作为万有引力的着力,
因为交易–而非战争–历来是北美洲最首要的区域间纽带。其它,
中华夏族民共和国当下在包涵钢铁、水泥、技能劳引力等的根基设备领域的壮士生产能力过剩,
须求找到出路,
利用另内地方的经济可不止的中坚构造在炎黄正达到饱和点投资有着合理的经济回报。其余,
中国自身在经济成就上的功成名就–即经济提升而不损伤其政治意识形态和协会–也许是诸多国家的政治首领的一个迎接形式。

From a geopolitical perspective, China pivots its influence on Eurasian
Continent, hitherto a power vacuum since US withdrawal from
Afghanistan/Iraq and the collapse of USSR, to counter balance US
influence which is re-asserting in the Asia Pacific region especially
since the Obama Administration. Furthermore, China utilizes economic
rather than military or cultural power to service as the centre of
gravitation as trade–rather than war–has historically been the major
inter-regional bonds in Asia. Also China’s current huge overcapacity in
infra-structure sector, including steel, cement, skill labour and
expertises, needs to find means to utilize elsewhere economic
sustainable infrastructures in China are reaching a saturation point as
further investment with have few justifiable economic returns.
Furthermore, China’s own success in economic achievement–economic
development without compromise its political ideology and structure–may
be an welcoming model for political leaders in many B&R countries.

那壹盛极一时的经济圈涵盖了1些 mindstaggering 的多寡: 它归纳60多少个国家, 陆三%
的5洲人口 (4四亿), 二4% 举世经济, 和3/10 的海内外 GDP。 中华夏族民共和国缅怀,
将改成人类历史上最大的交易通行格局,
是人类文明中最大的交通系统和贸易有关项目,
也是当先最广范围的最大的总体经济互连网。分歧的社会-种族和政治实体。由于多数的国家仍处在发展阶段,
仍有充足的半空中释放他们的经济潜力;要是是那样的话,
它很也许是本世纪最重大的经济前行布置,
因为中华夏族民共和国在过去30年的经济神蹟。固然是出于种族、宗教和历史原因,
包括了成都百货上千敌对群众体育–印度(东正教、穆斯林,孔雀王朝)和巴基Stan、犹太人(东正教)和阿拉伯人、伊朗(波斯王朝)和阿拉伯世界(伊斯兰)等,
而且往往是区域争论的闪点, 就像是方今的叙拉斯维加斯和 ISIS 的地方一致,
中国如同孵化的成功的 B&Tiguan倡议的假使共赢的商业利益通过交易可以摆平甚至超越的差距,
导致贰个由许多见仁见智的国度和团组织经常由买卖和交易关系组成和谐和繁荣的 B&凯雷德区。中国将只可以投入大批量的财力入股, 面临高风险, 因为在SREB/MS福睿斯的征途上,有不少易受加害的地方和瓶颈点,
并期望有望出现低照旧负的投资回报, 因为许多 B & 奇骏 国家是莫斯中国科学技术大学学 challenged
地点为社经前行。中华夏族民共和国对经济实力超过文化历史差距的思索的乐观主义态度的基础,
就如是依照中夏族民共和国自小编在社会主义背景下发生的经济成功的阅历,
那是缺点和失误宗教作为社政因素.那项中夏族民共和国成功的门类, 在那么些宗教是第2的,
倘使不是决定社会因素的地带, 还有待验证。

This B&R co-prosperity economic circle contains some mindstaggering
data: it includes 60+ nations, 63 % of global population (44 Billion),
24% Global economy, and 30% of global GDP. China envisions that B&R will
become the largest trade thru-way in human history, the largest
infra-structure in transport system and trade related projects in human
civilization, and the biggest integrative economic network that span
through the widest spectrum of diverse socio-ethnic and political
entities. Since most of the nations in B&R are still in developing
stage, there are still plenty of rooms to unleash their economic
potentials; should that be the case, it may well be the most significant
economic development plan in this Century, after China’s economic
miracles during the past three decades. Even though B&R regions includes
many rival groups due to ethnic, religious and historical reasons–India
and Pakistan, Jews and Arabs, Iran and the Arab world…etc., and are
often flash points of regional conflicts, as in the current case of
Syria and ISIS, China seems to hatch the success of the B&R initiative
on the assumption the win-win commercial interests through trades can
overcome and even transcend differences between rival regional fractions
leading to a harmonious and prosper B&R region composed of many
different nations and groups commonly bonded by commercial and trade
ties. China will have to put in large amount of capital investment, to
face high risk as there many vulnerable spots and bottle necks points
along the SREB/MSR paths, and to expect the possible of low and even
negative investment returns as many of the B&R countries are highly
challenged places for socio-economic developments. China’s basis on an
assumed optimism of B&R initiative on economic power to override
cultural-historical difference seemed to be based on China’s own
experience in economic success happening within a socialist context
which lacks religion as a socio-political factor. Such project of
China’s success onto B&R region where religions are an major, if not
dominating social factor, is yet to be tested.

出于 B 和 中华V贸易节点正在创立并由此交易媒介、高速列车、飞机场、现代港口和邮电通信系统进行接二连三,
将有多如牛毛存活的乡镇提拔为重点的国贸宗旨;那个骨干将透过贸易和劳务,
将数10或几13个连接起来, 作为经济基础结构来培育这一个 B 和 奥德赛球体。那些新的都会将有以下职能: 提供设施, 以增强国贸, 如运输, 物流,
金融, 数据, 银行, 会计, 翻译, 法律劳动等,
并在同一时半刻间成为区域中心发展辐射影响在方圆的区域。
这一个城市将不可幸免地掀起来自 B 和 索罗德社区及别的地方的行业内部标准人士提供各个劳动。别的,
这个城市的外国国籍职员也将渐次成立起来, 例如, 中夏族民共和国自3五年前起始对外开放以来,
在新加坡和圣菲波哥大日益确立了国际侨民。除了那些外国国籍人员社区之外,
还需求为他们随同亲朋好友提供常备服务,
如高校、商店、娱乐场馆、餐馆、诊所和宗教场面, 以满足她们的求实须求,
以便有二个平安无事的外国国籍社区辅助越多的区域间贸易服务。

As the B&R trading nodes are building up and are connecting by trade
vectors, high speed trains, airports, modern harbours and
telecommunication systems, there will be the upgrading of many existing
towns or cities into major international trading hubs; these hubs will
number several tens or dozens interconnected through trades and services
as the economic infrastructure to shape this B&R sphere. These new
cities will have the following functions: provide facilities to enhance
international trading such as transport, logistics, finance, data,
banking, accounting, translation, legal services …etc. and at the same
time become the centre of regional development radiating influence in
surrounding areas. These cities will inevitable draw specialized
professionals from B&R communities and beyond to provide various
services. Also there will be a gradual build up of these B&R expats in
these cities such as the gradual building up of international expats in
Shanghai and Guangzhou when China began to open up since 35 years ago.
Along with these expat communities, there are need to provide daily
services to them as well as their dependents, such as school, shop,
recreation, restaurants, clinic and religious venues catering to their
specific needs in order to have a stable expat community to support the
increasing volumes of inter-regional trade services.

鉴于跨区域移徙, B 和 奥迪Q3 侨民社区展望将增多,
这一个外国国籍社区和主人社会之间的动态互动将发生深远的知识-宗教影响。本文将对那种情景展开测度,
并估摸壹些恐怕的结果。本文所用的基本若是有三种:
一是占便宜促进和推动理论认为,
人类的动员搬迁方式重若是由经济能力营造的–经济条件较差的地带会促使人们离开富裕地区要是有越多的空子赢得越来越好的进项,
富裕地区将吸引大千世界来获得更加好的经济机会和劳务。 其次:
人是宗教影响和扩散的主要活动主体,
大约拥有的宗教传教活动。宗教内容要求经过信众的化身来表述,
以壹种真实的主意来传达宗教的新闻, 以引发新的善信,
因为宗教不仅仅是一套文学思想, 而是一种生存形式, 需求在生命格局。第贰:
由于传教士或然会挑衅本地的宗教信仰种类,
像传教士工作这么的有意传教活动可能会加重社会知识紧张。 无意的传道,
如国外侨民社区的留存等宗教信仰的低沉证人,
只要那一部落不打乱东道社会最近的社会宗教动态,
就足以促进社会容忍和二种性。 基于那些假如, 本文提议, “B 和 HummerH贰”
倡议将迎来多个更具宗教各类性的环境, 扩张宗教间的浮动关系,
并挑战中夏族民共和国对商业利益的要是, 那将取代了区域间的历史、文化和宗派差别,
经济热点能够摆平社会-宗教紧张关系, 那是华夏领导所全数的古板观念。但是,
最初的钻研已经明朗地方统一标准明, 穆斯林极端主义者是由意识形态造成的,
而不是经济上的–贫穷–原因。 中夏族民共和国对繁荣和谐的经济开发区的愿景,
只怕会因特定语境下宗教动态的复杂性而发出一般的犬牙相制和相对的结果。随着全球政治秩序的接踵而至 蜂拥而至波动,
b 和 r 倡议只怕需求平时进行首要调整中中原人民共和国境内的连锁移民

With the projected increase of B&R expat communities due to
inter-regional migration, there will be profound cultural-religious
implications between the dynamic interactions of these expat communities
and hosting societies. This paper will speculate on such scenario and
conjecture on some of the possible outcomes. There are three basic
presuppositions used in this paper: Firstly the economic push and pull
theory which suggests that that human migration patterns are largely
shaped by economic forces–areas with poor economic conditions will push
people to leave for rich areas where there are more opportunities for
better incomes, and rich areas will attract people to come for better
economic opportunities and services. Secondly: human being is the main
active agent for religious influences and transmission in almost all
religious proselytising activities. Religious content needs to be
expressed through the embodiment of the believers to convey the
religious message in an authentic way to attract new followers as
religion is more than a set of philosophical ideas but rather a way of
live that needs to be demonstrated in a life form. Thirdly: Intentional
proselytising activities such as missionary work may contribute to the
escalation of socio-cultural tensions as missionaries may challenge the
local religious believe system. Unintentional proselytising such as
passive witness of religious faith like the presence of an expat
community may promote social tolerance and diversities so long as this
group does not upset the current socio-religious dynamics of the hosting
society. Based on this these presuppositions, this paper suggests that
the B&R initiative will usher in a more religious diversity environment,
increase inter and intra religious tensions, and challenge the China’s
assumptions on commercial interests that would supersede inter-regional
historical, cultural and religious differences, and that economic ties
can overcome social-religious tensions, a conventional belief held by
Chinese policy makers. However, initial researches have already strongly
suggested that Muslim extreme fundamentalists are caused more by
ideological than by economic–poverty–reasons. China’s vision of a
prosper and harmonious B&R economic zone may general mix and perhaps
opposing consequences depending on the complexity of the religious
dynamics of a particular context. With the increase fluctuating of
global political order, B&R initiative may need constant major
readjustment B&R related Migrants within China

The economic push and pull factors in human migration has well been
documented in China as more than 150 million China’s internal migrants
are moving form mostly impoverished homeland to prosper regions, from
rural areas to urban cities, and from regional cities to metropolitans,
to seek better economic opportunities. Similar patterns are also
observed in Eurasia as migrant workers such as Filipinos in Gulf States,
Indonesians in Hong Kong, Turkish in Germany, or Vietnamese in Taiwan.
Almost all of these migrants are induced by higher incomes in hosting
nations than in their home countries. The flows are often dynamic
responding to economic changes. For example, as China’s rural areas are
improving in economic opportunities since about five years ago, there
has been a decrease in flow of rural population into the Pearl Delta
areas for factory works, and increase flow of population to the second
tier cities as economic tempo is picking up in those cities while the
major urban canters are slowing down the developmental pace. With the
B&R initiatives, one may expect those cities and regions in China
directly benefitted by B&R will attract domestic skilled labours and
professionals from all over China building up B&R related projects.
Those cities will mostly be the Southern coastal provinces and
South-western boarding provinces for the Maritime Belt and the
North-western Provinces for the Silk Road as illustrated shown by the
following picture

http://www.postwesternworld.com/2015/03/10/chinas-pivot-eurasia/
As for domestic migrants, they will mostly be specialized professionals
engaging in trade, commerce, logistic, telecommunication, finance and
transports, as most of these B&R gateway cities, such as those on
Maritime harbour port cities and bordering region cities, will serve as
commercial and transport hub from the China side for OBOR. There may
perhaps be many construction works for building of infrastructures such
as railway and ports, but these construction workers will leave once the
constructions are completed and not leaving any long-term
socio-religious impacts. However the commercial related domestic
professionals drawn from all over the nation, along with their
dependants, will probably stay on to keep these commercial hubs in
function. These internal migrant professionals will most likely be drawn
from major international commercial centres in China such as Shanghai,
Shenzhen and Beijing, where a vast pool of skilled professionals are
readily available.
The second major pool of migrants will be those expats related with B&R
countries. One may expected to see increasing expat populations from
ASEAN countries aggregated in Yunnan, Central and West Asians in
Xinjiang, Central Europeans in Xian, and many others such as Russians,
Iranians, Thais, Indians, Turks, Hungarians..etc. in cities where trade
opportunities are available. Just as one had seen the gradual building
up of Japanese, American and European expat communities in Shanghai and
Beijing when China began the trading with the West since 25 years ago,
and the increase of Korean expat in Northeast China as China-Korean
trade increases. This group of B&R will significantly increase the
international dimension as well as representation of the current expats
in China who are predominantly represented by Westerners (American,
European, Australians) Japanese and Korean.The third group of new
migrants may perhaps be the professionals drawn from overseas Chinese
population as many of them speak Chinese and come from the Chinese
Diaspora communities; and perhaps most may be drawn from the vast pool
of Mainland students who had studies and worked in overseas with
international trading experience and are now seeking opportunities back
in China. They may have a variety of residency or citizenship along with
different relational contacts in China. They are neither entirely
foreigners nor local Chinese and often form their own overseas returnee
communities in China. May have Chinese nationals as spouses and often
may not be part of the expat community of their citizenship.

B&R migrants in China: religious dynamics and interactions

All three groups will have their different cultural-religious values and
interact with local society in various ways. For the first group of
migrants from major commercial Chinese cities, they carry new ideas and
secular values to these mostly second tier cities which are more
traditional and conservative in social values. For example, a Shanghai
accountant will carry with him or her not only the international
auditing standard, but also the social cultural that favours
international commercial activities such as meritocracy than despotism,
gender equality or liberal gender relations. Strain in cultural
difference will be an growing edge for those hosting cities to strive
for development. The potential religious tension would mostly likely be
in Muslim dominated areas of the North Western regions where Islamic
influence are strong to perhaps oppose non Islamic social values such as
the more casual gender relations popular in coastal regions of China
where Western cultural influence are strongest. Should that be the case,
these Muslim dominated areas in North-western part of China would have
to embrace a more diverse society including the acceptances of the more
liberal social values which may contradict the traditional Islamic
social values in order to sustain the B&R operation on China side. Or
some of the Muslims will find these new domestic migrants as a threat
challenging their traditional religious values, and may find various
means to oppose such new incursion of social values leading to social
unrest.
As for the second group, regardless of where they come from, they will
usually bring along with them their own religious culture into the new
hosting Chinese cities which are officially secular or non-religious, as
B&R region contains the majority of the worlds’ Muslim, Buddhist ,
Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zoroastrian as well as the Orthodox
Christian populations. It is also a place where most of the world’s
relgions are originated. Just as the Muslim traders since the 8th
Centuries built up the Muslim community in Asia for generations, these
new B&R expat communities will stay in those gateway Chinese cities for
prolong period of time necessity for trade . They will bring with them
their dependents, their religious practice and their life styles. A
recent example will be the large expat Muslim communities in Yiwu along
with their own schools, shops, mosques and Arabic speaking community.
These Chinese B&R related cities will have to learn to make provisions
for these new communities along with their perhaps exotic religious
practices. It will be an eye opener for many local Chinese who has
little exposure to world religions and some Chinese may even be drawn as
devotees of these religions, just like many in US and Europe are drawn
into Hari Krishna or the Unification Church (the Moonies) in the 1960s
and 1970s.

There is also a high possibility that the new B&R expat groups in China
may also escalate the already strained inter-ethnic relations, such as
the Turkish merchants in Uyghur dominated Xinjiang may promote the
pan-Turkic sentiment which will indirectly lend support to the East
Turkistan Independent Movement challenging the sovereign claim of China
over Xinjiang. Similarly the Jingpo or Dai expat from Myanmar in Yunnan
may bring along with them their own ethnic-political complications from
the tension between Shan or Kachin Autonomous States with the Myanmar
authorities into China which may further destabilizing the already
fragile China border regions with Myanmar and Laos. After all, the
Jingpo ethnic minorities in Yunnan often identify themselves with their
ethnic Jingpo (Kachin) across the border sharing common language,
tradition and religions for centuries; many Jingpo people in China also
serves in the Kachin Independent Army in Myanmar. One can find many of
such examples as many of China’s ethnic minorities have strong ties with
their ethnic counterparts across the China border with increasing
autonomous or ethno-nationalistic sentiments often enhanced by religion.

For the last major group–Chinese overseas returnees, contemporary
research by Yang Fenggang suggested that a high percentage, as much as
30%, of them seemed to embrace Christian faith while they were living
aboard. Such high percentage of Protestant converts among the returnees
are also cause the increasing number of non-registered urban churches
established in major Chinese cities patron by these Chinese returnees.
Many hold foreign citizenship or residency and technically not Chinese
citizens and are in rather grey areas in terms of religious
administration by the Chinese authorities as they may have spouse who
are not foreign passport holders yet they may worship together in a
technically religious venue for foreigners, and often not formally
registered. Contrary to many of the local non-registered groups by
national are often harassed by local authorities, these new urban based
non-registered Christian groups are supported by rich and powerful
patrons who are well connected not only with senior authorities but also
international religious and commercial networks who serves as a
political umbrella to protest these groups from harassments by local
authorities. Their presence may easily cause socio-religious tension as
their religious gatherings may draw many Chinese, often colleagues or
business partners of these religious returnees, to join Christianity,
and some local Christians may be drawn to these powerful elite
communities for protection from harassment by the authority. If that
will be the case, there will be some forms of Foreign Concession zone in
China’s religion landscape, envy by national Christian groups and
resented by local authorities–a situation that the authority may need
to address in future.

Intra B&R migrations: religious dynamics and interactions

As mentioned earlier in this paper, B&R region contains the largest
population of many important world and ethnic religions. Although China
may be the least religious nation, almost all other B&R nations are very
religious with some even embrace religious values as their national
policies, such as the case of Indonesia and Iran. Also there is a
growing tend to have increasing religious influences to foster national
or ethnic identity especially towards the more conservative branches on
national governance and identity, such as in the case of Turkey of
escalating Turkic identity, India of increasing Hinduism as national
identity, Orthodox belief as the de facto Russian national identity, to
name a few. There are also the emergence of extreme religious groups
imposing religious rules political governance, such as the Taliban
movement and the ISIS. Therefore, with the increasing intra B&R migrant
populations, one would expect the new socio-religious challenges from
B&R expats to various hosting B&R nations. These challenges may range
from merely amusement of observing exotic religious practices by the
locals in a tolerance society, to offensive behaviours in the eyes of
the locals, such polytheistic images and worships in a puritanical
religious society such as Hinduism practice in Saudi Arabia, to
escalation of inter-regional rivals, such as Iranian Shiite in
predominate Sunni’s in UAE.
Also some of the interregional tensions, especially those involved with
already tensed ethnic and religious revival between countries such as
Iran and Saudi Arabia, or Pakistan and India, may also be escalated
through the presence of rival expat communities, as these countries are
competing for regional influence in political, religious and in ethnic
dominancy. Social tension may also increase as the presence of some
expat communities could empower, even unintentionally, local minority
groups to challenge the ruling regime, such as Iranian merchants may
encourage the Shiite in Yemen Shiites to oppose the Sunni ruling tribes,
the Kurds in Turkey, the Tamils in Sir Lanka…etc. There are also the
rise religious identity overshadowing national boundaries such as the
co-ordinated demonstrates of Muslims in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia and
Thailand on 25th November, 2016 to support their co-religious Rohingya
in Myanmar.
Currently there are already countless religious-ethnics flash points in
Eurasian Continent, with many dated back for centuries, which are
currently accentuated by the rise of religious fundamentalism mixed with
emergence of nationalism or ethno-centrism. The basic tenet of B&R
co-prosperity sphere is based on the assumption that trade and
commercial interests will override and even overcome the traditional
religious-ethnic tension among rival groups or rival nations. However
often one observe just the opposite in B&R regional rivals is taken
place, such as Israel and the surrounding Arab nations, or
India-Pakistan in Kashmir, that these intensive conflicts are contrary
to any sound economic reasoning. It seems that this China led B&R
initiative could bring socio-political harmony to this ancient Eurasian
land through trade and economic development, or may usher in an new era
of conflict intensification by inter-mixing rival groups is yet to be
seen.

China-B&R religious dynamics interactions.

The increase of Chinese expat merchant or commercial related communities
in B&R nations will also bring new socio-religious dynamics into these
nations. Although China is an non-religious nation, or having the
largest agnostic population in the world, and one can interprets that
there is no religious connotation as Chinese interact with nationals
from B&R region who are predominately religious. However, nationals of
B&R nations with strong religious sentiments may regards Chinese
merchants who are mostly secularists with secular values who will be
crash with local religious social values. It has been well documented
that some Chinese operate restaurants in Afghanistan are doubled as
brothels and served alcohols to local Muslim youth which infuriated
local Muslim communities. Similarly Chinese run bars and brothels in
Peshawar, Pakistan, for international communities yet were patron by
local Muslim youth which had already caused protests from local Mullahs
leading to the riots and casualties at the Red Mosque in 2007. Also the
perhaps hundreds of Chinese prostitutes in Dubai are currently tolerated
by local authorities so long as the customers are non Dubai national;
but there will come to a point of non-toleration if Dubai nations are
involved. It seems many countries were once welcomed Chinese merchants,
especially since the 1990s till the turn of the Century, are gradually
become ambivalence and even hostile toward Chinese merchants for their
generally profit oriented commercialism in lieu of religious sensitivity
to local culture and values. The prolong lack of religious knowledge and
contact among Chinese population becomes a liability when these secular
Chinese merchants with little religious understanding or sensitivity
encounter with people in societies where religion is an essential part
of the cultural milieu.
Furthermore, the aggressiveness of the Chinese merchants, along with
their usually short business cycles especially the small entrepreneurs,
are drawing increasing negative reception from many B&R countries, from
resentment towards the natural resource exploitation in Myanmar, to
disrespect local religious value (mostly Muslim dominated areas), to
insensitive to local customs such as in Thailand towards Buddhist
customs, and to cause the collapse of local industries such as plastic
manufactures in Morocco, are factors that contribute towards the
international resentments against Chinese presences leading to many
incidents of attacks and expulsion of Chinese expat merchants in recent
years from Kyrgyzstan to Vietnam—both are B&R nations. The State Owned
Enterprises Projects in B&R regions, usually conducting large scale
infrastructure project, are often operated in a hermitic compound with
virtually no social interaction with local communities and Chinese
managers and worker are rather naivety towards local religious customs.
Unless Chinese merchants will have a higher sensitivity on religious
cultural of B&R in general, one may expect that the will be an increase
of negative sentiments towards Chinese merchants in B&R region as
religious values seems to be valued over economic benefits observed from
populations in most of the B&Rs nations–a fact that had not been
appreciated by Chinese who are mostly non- religious and secular in
social values.

Intentional proselytising may escalate inter-religious tensions

Traditional many religions in Asia spreads first through merchants and
then missionaries through trade routes as in the case of Islam’s
spreading to Asia.

There is also a similar pattern in the case of Christianity via Silk
Route in 7th Century to China, or the Sea Route since the 16th Centuries
from Europe to Asia. Also sees the spreading of Manichaeism and
Zoroastrianism from East Asian to China via the Silk Route by both
merchants and religious personnel. Buddhism spread from India to China,
and from China to Korea and Japan, through well established trade routes
developed by inter-regional Buddhist traders. The common scenario was
that as some expat merchants took resident in hosting society, they
brought along with them their religion, be it Christianity or Buddhism.
Such religion caught the curiosity and attention of local inhabitants
and some may drawn to the new religion. As this new religious community
grew in size, with increase in trade hence traders and their dependents,
this community would call for some professional clergies back home to
provide religious formation and instruction for continuous religious
observance. For example, when the Arabic speaking Muslim communities
reached a certain size in Indonesia, they invited Imams back home mainly
to maintain their religious observance especially to their younger
generation than to proselytise others. Eventually, the more zealous
members would actively promote their religion to others, and gradually
professional religious proselytisers (missionaries) are involved in
spreading of this new religion. In the case of Marco Polo, his memories
on China aroused interests of Catholic missionaries leading the eventual
Catholic mission movement from Europe to Asia. Historical evidence
suggest that merchants have been often the and unintentional
proselytiser and they served as precursor of missionaries who are
intentional proselytisers.
Currently there are already many proselytising activities taken within
the B&R regions, from Christians trying to convert believers from other
faiths, especially targeting the Muslims as an reaction to the 9/11
aftermath, to the more Fundamentalist Imams to promote the Wahabbi
branch of puritanical Islam, to Zen Buddhist monks to spread
contemporary Buddhist message targeting intellectuals and business
circles, or the Pentecostal pastors to advocate Charismatic movements
within Christianity. In fact, almost all religious groups are actively
conducting their proselyte activities in both inter-religious circles to
win believers to intra religious sphere to promote certain sects or
branches within a particular religion. It will be obvious for the
intentional proselytisers, regardless of their religious affiliation to
utilize whatever means to advance their missionary activities, such as
trade vectors like B&R.
B&R will provide a great opportunity to these intentional proselytisers
as B&R will established a free-flow inter-connected network in trades,
good, services, finances, data and personnel within this huge region.
Proselytisers will take advantage of this network of trade route,
tagging along with merchants just they had done in the past, to spread
their religious messages to whatever places along the B&R trade routes.
Therefore B&R will greatly enhance the current intentional proselytising
activities, as well as to develop new mission field as B&R will enhance
accessibility to regions hitherto not easily reached by outsiders. In
fact there has already been mission works from Christian groups, many
from non-registered sectors in China, by sending Chinese Christian
missionaries to Central and East Asian to convert the Muslim
populations, and B&R will surely provide a great opportunity for these
mission groups to intensify such movement. From both the historical
evident and current religious dynamics, B&R will induce a more intensify
level of inter-regional proselyte activities escalating the
socio-religious tension of the region and perhaps complicated the
already delicate inter-regional political relations.

Conclusion

中原领导的 B 和 汉兰达 将迎来3个更连贯的欧亚大6经济领域,
它或者升高变成三个引领全球经济的经济实体,
尤其是当世界两大经济体的走强时, 欧洲联盟正遭到英美出口的挑衅。
随着新的经济机会正在出现, B 和 HummerH二区域交易的增添也将促成区域内和里面包车型大巴人口迁移扩展。 这个新移民,
尤其是根源其余 b 和 r 国民的人, 他们的历史观大多是宗教的,
包涵世界上最大的社会风气宗教的人数, 无论是西晋依旧当代。
那些新移徙者将无意地将宗教和民俗带入其主人社会,
并将拉长社会和宗教的种种性, 并有助于增加本地人口的社会容忍度。 可是,
有意传教的传教士, 传统上遵照商人建立的交易路线, 或添加区域间的商业活动,
将净增本地的宗教动态。 这么些有意的 proselytisers 将征集新的皈依者,
从此外迷信或分歧的温和派分支在相同信仰中,
导致更加多的社会宗教紧张关系的主持社会,
创立更加多的无限或新的教派团体社区普通对该地社区遗憾。此外,
中中原人民共和国万众广泛缺乏宗教经验, 由此宗教敏感性,
可能会对堵住中国和美利哥关系发展的国度造成负面心境。由此, B 和 Wrangler倡议将推向二个更三种化的社会-宗教社会, 那可能会促进越来越高层次的社会容忍,
从而导致三个更和谐的社会, 恐怕或许使已经紧张的社会-宗教紧张时局升级,
导致破坏性的社会和区域不相同。至于中华夏族民共和国的新经济发达的愿景,
以取代近日的社会-宗教历史的支离破碎破碎的和不鼎盛的 b 和 r 地区尚有待检验。

对华夏的话,
经济提高是一项高风险、高资金财产、经济回报不鲜明的音容笑貌。宗教层面将加码那一个宏伟项目的高危机程度和开支因素。由于美利坚合资国对中华在印度洋的鸿沟,
中夏族民共和国的汽油供应安全, 巨额外汇储备的积累, 以及基础设备建设的超能力,
中华夏族民共和国被迫选取那种稳定。但是, 随着中夏族民共和国和全球经济的减速,
美利坚同盟友对华夏施压的或者压缩, 南中国人民解放军海军事和政治治部治不安缓和, 中东与叙乌鲁木齐抵触加剧,
Britexit 和民族主义欧洲结盟友家的心气, 大概会有局地较小的血本替代方案,
中中原人民共和国的海内外交事务务进入1个不行预感的时日。只怕混沌理论能给大家的水晶球出点光–期待意想不到的作业。

The China-led B&R will usher in a more connected Eurasia economic sphere
which may develop into an economic entity leading the global economy
especially when the strengthen of world’s two largest economies, the EU
as it is under challenged by the exit of Britain and USA as the
Present-elected Trump cause uncertainties volatilities in Market, are
weakening in global economic influence. However the increase inter-B&R
region trades will also lead to increase of inter and intra regional
human migrations as new economic opportunities are emerging. These new
migrants, especially those from other B&R nationals which are mostly
religious in values as B&R contains the world’s largest populations of
most of the world religions, be it ancient or contemporary. These new
migrants will unintentionally carry with them religions and practices
new to their hosting societies, and will enhance the socio-religious
diversities as well as to contribute to the increase of social
tolerances of the local population. However the intentional
missionaries, traditionally following the trade routes established by
merchants, or tagging along with inter-regional commercial activities,
will put increase to the local religious dynamics. These intentional
proselytisers will recruit new converts be it from other faiths or
different moderate branches within the same faith, leading to increase
of socio-religious tensions of the hosting society by creating more
extreme or new groups of religious communities usually resented by local
communities. Furthermore, the general lack of religious experience,
hence religious sensitivities, among Chinese population may contribute
negative sentiment against China among B&R nations hindering Sino-B&R
relations. As a result, B&R initiatives will contribute to a more
diverse socio-religious society which may promote a higher level of
social tolerance leading to a more harmonious society, or may escalated
the already strained social-religious tensions, leading to a destructive
social and regional fragmentation. As for China’s vision of a new
economic prosper B&R region to replace the current
socio-religious-historical fragmented and underdeveloped B&R region is
yet to be tested.

For China, B&R is an economic development initiative high risk, high
cost and with uncertain economic returns. The religious dimension would
increase the risk level and cost factors for this grand project. China
is forced to take such orientation due to the US containment of China in
the Pacific, China’s security of oil supply, the accumulating of huge
foreign reserves, and the available of over capacity in building of
infrastructure. However, with the slowing down of Chinese and global
economy, the perhaps decrease of US pressure on China, de-escalation of
political tension in South China Sea, the intensification of conflicts
in Middle East vis Syria and ISIS, the Britexit and nationalistic
sentiments in EU nations, there may be some lesser costing alternatives
for China B&R as our Global Affairs enters into an age of
unpredictability. Perhaps Chaos Theory can shed some lights to our
Crystal Ball–expect the unexpected.

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