Road

丝绸之路(Silk Road)1

参考资料

http://zh.unesco.org/silkroad/

http://zh.unesco.org/silkroad/network-silk-road-cities-map-app/zh

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丝绸之路是啊?

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即漫长东西通路,将华、西域与阿拉伯、亚速海紧密联系在协同。

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棉布之路(意大利语:die
Seidenstrasse),简称也丝路,最早来德意志联邦共和国地思想家费迪南·冯·李希霍芬
(费迪南德(Ferdinand) von Richthofen)1877年问世的《中国——我之远足成果》(China,
Ergebnisse eigener Reisen)。
天鹅绒之路平时是赖欧亚北部的商路,与南部的茶马古道形成对照,西晋常张骞和北周时班超出使西域开辟的因长安(今布里斯托)、蚌埠呢起源,经黑龙江、新疆,到中亚、西亚,并统一科尔特斯海各之陆上通道。这长达道路为吃称呼“陆路天鹅绒之路”,以界别日后此外两久冠以“天鹅绒之路”名称的交通路线。因为由当时条总长西运的货被因帛制品的震慑最酷,故得此名。其基本走向定于两男鼠时期。
广义的棉布之路指从上古初叶陆续形成的,遍及欧亚大陆甚至连北非同东非在内的长途商业贸易和文化交流线路的总称。除上述路线外,还连约前5世纪形成的草野棉布之路,中古初年形成,在后晋公布巨大效率的水道丝绸之路跟与西北棉布之路又起,在宋初代表西北棉布之路成为旅途交换通道的南部天鹅绒之路。
虽棉布之路是沿线各样同推动经贸发展之究竟,但过多丁当,中国之张骞两软发而西域,开辟了举世互换的新篇章。从此,这漫漫路就成了“国道”,各国大使、商人沿着张骞开通的征途,举行交易。那长长的东西通路,将华、西域与阿拉伯、楚科奇海紧密联系在同。经过五只世纪之不止努力,棉布之路为外来拓到了爱奥尼亚海。广义上丝路的东段已经到了南朝鲜、日本,西段及法兰西共和国、荷兰王国。通过海路还只是及意大利、埃及,成为北美洲与南美洲、南美洲列经济文化交流的雅之路。

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天鹅绒之路是历史及横贯欧亚大陆的交易交通线,在历史上促进了欧亚非各国同九州底友好往来。

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太古时期,在黑龙江流域、两水流域、印度地表水流域以及长江流域的败的草原上,有着相同丝由许多休贯的小圈圈交易路线大体衔接而改为的草原之路。这一点曾经给沿路诸多底考古发现所验证。这漫长路就是是卓殊早的棉布之路的雏形。
首的丝绸之路上连无是坐帛为要交易物资,在公元前15世纪左右,中国商就早已出入塔克拉玛干沙漠边缘,购买产自现新疆地区之及田玉石,同时发售海贝等沿海特产,同中亚地区拓展小圈圈贸易往来。而良种马及其他符合长途运输的动物吗起持续令人们所动,令广大的市文化沟通成为可能。比如阿拉伯半岛的常应用,耐渴、耐旱、耐饿的单峰骆驼,在公元前11世纪便用于饭店运输。而分散在亚欧大陆的雅利安人和斯基泰人以招于公元前31世纪左右即起先饲养马。双峰骆驼则于快继呢为运用在经贸旅行中。此外,欧亚大陆内地是广的草原和沃的土地,对于游牧民族和商队运输的家畜而言可以随时随地安定下来,就近补为水、食物跟燃料。这样平等支付商队、旅行队或军队好在沿线各强国没有留意到他俩的存在或者激发敌意的动静下,举办短时间,持久而路途遥远的旅行。

1、月氏:(yuèzhī或ròuzhī)为公元前3世纪至公元1世纪一个族名称。早期因为游牧为生,住在明天中国之山西邻近,并时常跟匈奴暴发争辩,到新兴深受匈奴攻击,一分为次之:西迁暨伊犁的,被喻为大月氏;居留被中华甘肃暨陕西之祁连贵州南麓就地之,被叫作小月氏。这时,月支起初向上,逐渐有国家之雏型。由于大月氏各处丝绸之路,控制在东西贸易,使其浸变得精。《南宋书•西羌传》记载:月氏“被服饮食言语略与羌同”,表达月氏的语言很可能属于汉菲律宾语系。

2、祆(xiān)教:即琐罗亚斯德教是风靡为西晋波斯(今伊朗)及中亚对等地的宗教,中国史称祆教、火祆教、拜火教。相传为公元前六世纪琐罗亚斯德创。波斯萨珊王朝奉为国教。其教创善、恶二元论,以炸也善神的意味。南北朝时传入中华晚而如“火祆教”或“祆教”。西汉曾就让长安建祠盛行,并立官专管。
武宗反佛后逐年废不污染。琐罗亚斯德教是基督教诞生往日中东与西亚最有震慑之教,明代波斯帝国的国教,曾让伊斯兰教徒贬称为“拜火教”。琐罗亚斯德教的教义一般认为是神学上的一致神论和历史学上的次首按。琐罗亚斯德教的经典首即使《阿维斯塔》,意呢知识、谕令、或藏,通称《波斯古经》。

关于天鹅绒之路

简介
人类历史在持续搬迁碰着升华,随之有的是多次之商品交换,以及技术及思考的互换。这样的通信及交易之路以欧亚大陆上复杂,在历史上逐步形成了大家明天所称的棉布之路。化学纤维之路覆盖着路上以及海上交通,来自各样地点的众人以是沿线开展着化学纤维和任何货品的市。海上丝路将左和西方以航线连接起来,是广义上的棉布之路的机要片段。海上的路就是市香料的重大渠道,后来为众人坐香料的路要亮。
唯独此庞然大物之大网承载的免一味是货物的交易。频繁的运动以及人数底杂引起了知识、思想、文化及笃信的交换,给小欧人之历史和文化带来了远大的影响。在沿线都及这么的思文化交换不断提高,逐步形成了差不四个教育与知识核心,吸引着行客们踏上上随即长达商路。自然科学、艺术、理学和手工艺和技巧以此地让分享和传播。随之,语言、宗教与学识为在个别发展中互有了影响。
实在“天鹅绒之路”只是现代底一律栽叫法。在这几个悠久的史受到,这漫长古老的征途并没有一个适宜的讳。十九世纪前期,德意志联邦共和国地经济学家,费迪南·冯·李希霍芬,把这么些商道命名为Die
Seidenstrasse (天鹅绒之路),神秘且令人浮想联翩。

罗之制以及交易
罗是以蚕茧中领取的蛋白纤维编织而制成的纺织品。丝绸打造技巧来源于大顺华,公元前盖两千七百年。作为价值不过高之手工活,天鹅绒被中国朝廷保留为御用服饰、家纺、横幅和另外外交赠品。浙江省发现的公元前叔暨四世纪之古墓里出土了平等批判可以的天鹅绒,包括锦缎,纱和绢绣,以极古老的完全的丝制伏装。
罗之生过程叫严酷保密了大体上三千年。当时朝廷对私向旁人泄露丝绸生产过程的责罚是死缓。中国在制丝业上的霸并无要其消费市场局限为中华。一方面,天鹅绒作为外交贡品流入他国。另一方面,棉布贸易为直接非凡频繁:开端止是望邻国销售,而后推广及更远的国度。到秦代(公元前206年届公元220年)时,棉布已改成了中国之显要出口产品。最近埃及、北蒙古等于地且出土了中华当汉时期的纺织品。
公元前同一世纪,天鹅绒传入杜塞尔多夫帝国。丝绸被视为非凡享异国风情的奢侈品而更换得颇为流行,甚至使得休斯敦(Houston)帝国颁发诏令以控制该价。棉布之盛一向让接续到碰着世纪。当时罗既是皇家使用的超人面料,也是财政的要紧根源。拜占庭对罗打造的严峻法令规定啊呈现了罗之出格身份。另外,拜占庭教堂对于丝制时装和室内装饰需求吗殊好。因而,天鹅绒成为了亚洲及远东底商路发展的首引力之一。
至于制丝技术之学识以就凡是坏难能可贵的。虽然中国廷竭力保密制作方法,那多少个地下要以华夏他扩散起来。在公元前6世纪,此桩技艺率先流传到了印度暨扶桑,接着传播及波斯王国,最终及天国。在公元6世纪,翻译家普罗科匹厄斯描述道:大约在同样时代
[公元前550年],印度底部分高僧来到了布达佩斯帝国。他们说服了查士丁尼大帝罗马免应当再由波斯买天鹅绒,并达成了她们由中国带来返的留下蚕缫丝的艺传授给休斯敦(Houston)底协定,以便布拉格随后拒绝自这一个敌国波斯或者另外任何国家购买棉布。那么些僧侣们说以前他俩以一个印度口时到看的地点,Serinda,完全控制了打天鹅绒之法门。另外,僧侣们针对频频追问试探他们之天子说,蚕是棉布之制作者,大自然在促使他们绵绵创立天鹅绒。虽说非可以一向用火蚕运输过来,不过蚕的作育也挺轻。一批蚕卵可以抱出成千上万独自幼虫,而众人才需要于孵后就此便为住幼虫作为保暖,直至她成长也成虫。僧侣们享受了这个新闻之后,他们同天王达成了预约并回了印度。当他们拿蚕卵带回拜占庭,教其上述养殖模式,将蚕卵孵化成幼虫,以树叶来喂。Houston帝国的制丝艺术之路就是这一个开。

罗之外:丝绸之路商品之多样性
就算如此棉布贸易是中亚商道的极早的催化剂之一,这单是东方、西方之间交易的泛商品受到的同等好像。其他货物包括罗之外的纺织品、调味品、粮食、蔬菜及水果、动物皮草、工具、木工、五金、宗教物品、艺术品、宝石等等。
当惨遭世纪,棉布之路起首风靡,人们的过往越来越多,直至19世纪,人们还于动用即时漫长商道。那不只表明棉布之路的要,还证实该弹性与适应性可以满意不断上扬变化的社会需要。这些商道也并从未沿任何特定道路

商人们频繁自由选用通往东欧、中东、中亚地区及远东差不六个地区的例外交通路线。除陆路以外,商人们还好选由中国同东南亚,经由孔雀之外国来到欧洲、印度与近东的海上棉布之路。
纵观历史,依照日之推和地缘政治环境的转变,棉布之路为直接提高。例如,罗马帝国的商们为逃脱经过慕尼黑底敌区帕提亚领土,拔取了通往北出发,经过高加索地区,途经波罗的海之路子。相似地,中世纪头,频繁的生意往来发生在跨中亚的河道运输网上。与此同时,这漫长河道中的水位时而上升时而下降,有时干涸,这条交易的路为相应的更换。
海上贸易是即时别一个极其重要的社会风气贸易网络。其极有名的用途是香运输,来自印尼摩鹿加群岛(以香料岛的称而闻名)的桂、胡椒、姜、丁香及豆蔻供给全球市场。故海上天鹅绒之路又为称之为‘香料的路’。商人经由丝绸之路,交易纺织品、木制品、宝石、金属制品、香料、木材及藏红花。天鹅绒之路超越十五万英里,从日本胡海岸,经过中国海岸线、东东亚和印度一向到中东同苏禄海。海上丝绸之路连接了阿拉伯半岛,美索不达米亚与印度大江流域的,其历史足以追溯到几千年前。在丁世纪初,来自阿拉伯半岛的潜水员等开发并了过北部湾直到印度西的初航线,海上天鹅绒之路网络为用扩充。实际上,早于八世纪,阿拉伯与中国期间的海上贸易畅通一度开首确立。
航行海术、天管法学与造船术的开拓进取实现了中距离的海上旅行。位于海上天鹅绒之路沿岸的都为港而扩充起来,如桑给巴尔,亚历山好,维尔纽斯,和果阿。这多少个城市日常暴发来来反复的生意人和海员以及常见的摆,也是商品、思想、语言与信教的置换的主干,因此成为了财物的联谊地。15世纪末,葡萄牙探险家达伽马,在好望角郊航行,这是亚洲水手正与东南亚海上贸易。到了16、17
世纪,棉布之路和其的盈利丰饶的市成为了葡萄牙、荷兰王国跟英帝国中可以竞争之纽带。这些殖民国家给他俩砍下的海上的路沿岸港口带来了财和保。他们行治理了海上贸易通道,授权当地权力机关于需要大的外国货的专举办田间管理,并针对商船征收了不可推断的税款。
上面地图凸显了各类不同之地与海上商道。来自世界各地的商人靠在这么些交通网络运输交易在型丰富的货品。商人的驼队平时采取当有路段停留。他们要稍作休息、补充用品,或留下扎营做买卖。这样的停留点遍布整个棉布之路,沿线城市以及常德由此欣欣向荣。
韦德娱乐1946手机版,天鹅绒之路既活跃而暴发渗透性。商人们跟土著做买卖,将外来商品出售于当地人的而也购买并引导各地的土产品。化学纤维之路不仅仅助长了商户的物质财富与货物的多样性,还促进了于天鹅绒之路上沿线的知、语言、思想之交换。

互换以及对话
恐怕在具有的天鹅绒之路的角色遭,最有历史意义之饶该对不同地点的众人相互互换往来之促进功能。在实践范围达到,商人们而使水到渠成地举办谈判就务须上他们所经国家的语言和风俗习惯。由此文化互换是质交流的一个根本因素。另外,许多行客为了体验沿线都之学识以及文化交换而踏上了即长长的冒险的路。
翻过丝绸之路的沿线区域分享了天经地义、艺术、文学与手工艺和技艺之知。同时,语言、宗教与学识也于各自的向上受到相互影响。通过棉布之路在世界范围外取得传播之无比知名的艺包括造纸术以及印刷技术。类似地,由于拿到了行客的上和散播,整个中亚地区之灌溉系统普遍具有相似特性。这些行客不仅带走及传颂好的文化,同时为收了不同社会之本土文化技术。
当公元前2世纪,将军张骞开辟了第一只从中国顶西方的天鹅绒之路。说于即号英雄,比打贸易开拓者,他再一次是一模一样位外交官。汉武帝在公元前139年,联盟外国,以反抗中国底传世仇敌—匈奴。张骞于派出往西面时,被匈奴抓获并被囚禁起来。十三年晚,他越狱并避让回了中华,给汉武帝讲述了增长的阅历及细节并做了有详细的喻。在公元前119年,汉武帝又使张骞拜访邻国,建立一个首从中华顶中亚之门路。
宗教及求知成为了众人沿线的远足的心劲。到印度取经后拿圣文带回中国底高僧们在中途开的远足日记,近期凡有关丝绸之路的严重性考据。玄奘在629至公元到654年的25年内写下之日志不仅具有伟大的历史价值,同时也启示了16世纪神魔小说的诞生。“西游记”,即这样平等总统中国先之经文的作。在中世纪,非洲的高僧胜任外交和教使团,访问东部。Giovanni
da Pian del Carpini在1245年到1247年是因为教皇Innocent
四世派出访问蒙古;随后,佛兰德方济各会修士威尔iam of
Rubruc在1253年及1255年由于法兰西共和国圣上路易九世派出,再一次走访蒙古汗国。其中最知名的应属威澳门探险家马可·波罗。他的出游约于1271同1292里头,长齐20差不多年。他粉身碎骨后该书的游记在南美洲易得万分于欢迎。
横跨所有欧亚大陆的途径是教的传播基础。佛教是棉布之路沿途上教传播一个例。在阿富汗巴米扬、在华夏花果山同在印度尼西亚婆罗浮屠都养有佛教艺术圣地和寺庙基督教,伊斯兰教,印度教,琐罗亚斯德教和一神教缘一般之点子传播。行客们收到他们所领到的文化,并将这么些不同之知识分享给协调的亲生。如此,印度让及伊斯兰被商户们通过海上丝绸之路从印度与阿拉伯引入到印尼跟大马。

行在天鹅绒之路上
化学纤维之路本身的提升基于人们以这区域的交通往来。在被世纪,马或骆驼是商队在陆路物流及的出众格局。天鹅绒之路上之店是专程为大型长途旅行商队所设计之。这多少个旅社对于当下条路及人口及商品的通行发挥了严重性的效用。通过对土耳其至中华随即同一段落棉布之路的观可得,这么些旅馆不仅为行人提供了香的饭菜和百色的喘气地当以后的路途做准备,同时也供了跟当地市场交换货物、贸易与市地点产品并跟外商户们交流的阳台,促进商户们相互交换文化、语言和探究。
趁天鹅绒之路发展壮大,沿线的事情时更多。商旅旅馆日渐其急需,从10世纪起初,旅馆宾馆的起遍布了全套中亚地区,一向持续到19世纪。这些协议游旅舍网,从中国延到印度陆地、伊朗、高加索、土耳其、北非、俄罗丝(Rose)及东欧国家。其中有饭店旅社至今尚存。旅舍商旅的职是因化学纤维之路上各国一样龙的里程来分布之。这样商人以及任何行客可以防止频繁天勤夜间留在危机重重的天鹅绒之路上,并维护体贴货物之平安。平均每30届40英里即会发出一些宾馆旅社,周边环境维护相比较好。
历史上商户在漫长的海上贸易旅程中面临着不同的挑衅。至中世纪以来,航海术,尤其是造船术的向上,进步了海上旅行的平安。在被世纪,对船员等最好要命之胁有就是是少饮用水。海上沿线丝绸之路港口的迈入,不仅为商户贸易提供做买卖的机会,而且保证了淡水供应。商船所面临的另外一样栽高风险是海盗。船上利润丰饶的货物往往变成海盗的对象。
丝绸之路遗产
于19世纪,考古学家、地理学家以及部分热情之探险者踏上了罗之探险的路。来自高卢鸡、United Kingdom、德意志、战斗民族(Rose)暨扶桑,那多少个探讨者通过中国西,今位于新疆之塔克拉玛干沙漠,沿着丝路追寻古迹。因他们之进献,近期发好多考古学上之意识和大度的学术研讨。那多少个发现叫丝路之历史同时重勾了世道之关心。
兹,许多史建筑和回忆碑、标志在丝路通道的宾馆饭店、港口和都市尚存。不同但相关联的知、语言、习俗与宗教在丝路上腾飞了上千年,恰是历史悠久的天鹅绒之路的投射。商人们与众多不同国籍的观光客的往来不仅于经贸调换达成,而且在学识融为一体之进程遭到,带来了源源并广泛的熏陶。从最初的探赜索隐阶段起初,棉布之路逐步变成迈欧亚大陆上,促进社会之演进的推引力。

连锁链接:
UNESCO Integral Study of the Silk Roads, Roads of
Dialogue

Recommendations for transnational heritage corridors of Silk Roads site
nomination

Caravanserais
History of civilizations of Central
Asia

21 世纪 新天鹅绒之路

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化学纤维之路经济带动和21世纪之海上化学纤维之路 (Belt & Road, B&R)
是一致桩发展战略性以及框架, 重点是国间的连通性和合作,
首倘诺中华期间还有欧亚大陆的其它地点它由个别独第一部分, 陆上
“棉布之路经济带动” (SREB) 和远洋 “海上天鹅绒之路” (MSR)
与战略计划公布为2015年。 自这时以来,
已当即时同倡导中开发了诸多经济带来及征途为主、探讨所、出版物、网站以及内阁分支机构。中国想建立一个新的经济区,
从中国, 包括有的国度以亚欧大陆组成的东盟成员国, 印度的低位欧国家,
新加坡协作团队的成员国,中东北非国家, 西亚江山, 非洲同东非的平等有。
它概括几拥有首要的全世界经济实体 (除去美洲, 澳大林茨暨新西兰, 西非,
南朝鲜及扶桑齐及美利坚同盟国关系密切的经济体)。

The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road,
also known as The Belt and Road (B&R) is a development strategy and
framework, proposed in 2013 by Xi Jinping that focuses on connectivity
and cooperation among countries primarily between the China and the rest
of Eurasia. It composes of two main components, the land-based “Silk
Road Economic Belt” (SREB) and oceangoing “Maritime Silk Road” (MSR)
with a strategic plan issued in 2015. Since then, numerous Belt and Road
centres, institutes, publications, web sites and Government branches
have been developed on this initiative. In a nut shell, China wants to
create a new economic zone that spans from China to include all the
countries on the Eurasian continents comprising of ASEAN member nations,
Indian Sub continent countries, SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization)
member nations, countries of MENA (Middle East North Africa), West Asian
countries, Europe and part of East Africa. It includes almost ALL of the
major global economic entities minus Americas, Australia and New
Zealand, West Africa, Korea and Japan –political economic powers that
traditionally closely linked with USA .

从今地缘政治的角度来拘禁, 中国对欧亚大陆的震慑,
一贯是于美利坚同盟国去阿富汗/伊拉克以及苏联解体以来的一个权力真空,
以抵消米国以亚太地区 re-asserting 的震慑。特别是由Obama政党。 此外,
中国接纳经济要无军事或知识力作万有重力的中央,
因为贸易–而非战争–历来是非洲着重的区域之中纽带。此外,
中国脚下于连钢铁、水泥、技能劳动力等之根底设备领域的壮烈产能过剩,
需要找到出路,
利用此外地点的经济而不断的着力构造于炎黄刚齐饱和点投资有着合理之经济回报。此外,
中国自己在经济成就上之中标–即经济腾飞使不危害其政治意识形态和结构–可能是累累国的政治领导人的一个接形式。

From a geopolitical perspective, China pivots its influence on Eurasian
Continent, hitherto a power vacuum since US withdrawal from
Afghanistan/Iraq and the collapse of USSR, to counter balance US
influence which is re-asserting in the Asia Pacific region especially
since the Obama Administration. Furthermore, China utilizes economic
rather than military or cultural power to service as the centre of
gravitation as trade–rather than war–has historically been the major
inter-regional bonds in Asia. Also China’s current huge overcapacity in
infra-structure sector, including steel, cement, skill labour and
expertises, needs to find means to utilize elsewhere economic
sustainable infrastructures in China are reaching a saturation point as
further investment with have few justifiable economic returns.
Furthermore, China’s own success in economic achievement–economic
development without compromise its political ideology and structure–may
be an welcoming model for political leaders in many B&R countries.

立无异于热火朝天之经济圈涵盖了有 mindstaggering 的数额: 它概括60六只国, 63%
的大地人口 (44亿), 24% 全球经济, 和30% 的天下 GDP。 中国考虑,
将成为人类历史及极充足之市通行形式,
是人类文明中尽要命的交通系统和交易有关品种,
也是跨最广泛范围的绝深之总体经济网。不同之社会-种族和政治实体。由于多数底国度论处在发展等,
仍爆发充分的半空中释放他们之经济潜力;假如果这样的话,
它异常可能是本世纪极其根本之经济提升计划,
因为中国在过去30年之经济奇迹。虽然是由种族、宗教与历史原因,
包括了许多敌对群体–印度(佛教、穆斯林,孔雀时)和巴基斯坦、犹太人(基督教)和阿拉伯人口、伊朗(波斯时)和阿拉伯世界(伊斯兰)等,
而且往往是区域争持之闪点, 就比如时之叙哈尔滨以及 ISIS 的场合一样,
中国似孵化的打响的 B&R
倡议的假而对得胜的商业利益通过交易可以克制甚至超过的差距,
导致一个是因为多两样的国及集体经常由商业和交易关系做和谐及兴隆的 B&R
区。中国用只好投入大量之工本入股, 面临风险, 因为在SREB/MSR
的道上,有无数爱为侵蚀的地点跟瓶颈点,
并期望来或出现没有还负的投资回报, 因为多 B & R 国家是惊人 challenged
地点吗社会经济腾飞。中国对事半功倍实力过文化历史差距的设想的开展态度的底子,
似乎是依照中国我以社会主义背景下出的经济成功的阅历,
那是缺宗教作为社会政治因素.这项中国成的品类, 在那多少个宗教是必不可缺的,
假如不是决定社会因素的地段, 还有待验证。

This B&R co-prosperity economic circle contains some mindstaggering
data: it includes 60+ nations, 63 % of global population (44 Billion),
24% Global economy, and 30% of global GDP. China envisions that B&R will
become the largest trade thru-way in human history, the largest
infra-structure in transport system and trade related projects in human
civilization, and the biggest integrative economic network that span
through the widest spectrum of diverse socio-ethnic and political
entities. Since most of the nations in B&R are still in developing
stage, there are still plenty of rooms to unleash their economic
potentials; should that be the case, it may well be the most significant
economic development plan in this Century, after China’s economic
miracles during the past three decades. Even though B&R regions includes
many rival groups due to ethnic, religious and historical reasons–India
and Pakistan, Jews and Arabs, Iran and the Arab world…etc., and are
often flash points of regional conflicts, as in the current case of
Syria and ISIS, China seems to hatch the success of the B&R initiative
on the assumption the win-win commercial interests through trades can
overcome and even transcend differences between rival regional fractions
leading to a harmonious and prosper B&R region composed of many
different nations and groups commonly bonded by commercial and trade
ties. China will have to put in large amount of capital investment, to
face high risk as there many vulnerable spots and bottle necks points
along the SREB/MSR paths, and to expect the possible of low and even
negative investment returns as many of the B&R countries are highly
challenged places for socio-economic developments. China’s basis on an
assumed optimism of B&R initiative on economic power to override
cultural-historical difference seemed to be based on China’s own
experience in economic success happening within a socialist context
which lacks religion as a socio-political factor. Such project of
China’s success onto B&R region where religions are an major, if not
dominating social factor, is yet to be tested.

由 B 和 R
贸易节点正在建立并透过贸易媒介、高速火车、机场、现代口岸和电信系统开展连续,
将起诸多共处的市镇升级吗首要的国际交易为主;这些基本以透过市及劳动,
将数十要几十个连接起来, 作为经济基础结构来培育这些 B 和 R
球体。这么些新的市将发生以下功能: 提供设施, 以提升国际贸易, 如运输, 物流,
金融, 数据, 银行, 会计, 翻译, 法律服务等,
并在同一时间成为区域主导发展辐射影响在方圆的区域。
这多少个城市以不可防止地抓住来自 B 和 R
社区与此外地点的科班规范人士提供各个服务。此外,
这一个城市的外籍人士也以渐渐建立起来, 例如, 中国自从35年前开对外开放以来,
在法国首都和马尼拉逐渐确立了国际侨民。除了那个外籍人士社区外,
还得吗他们随同亲属供常备服务,
如学校、商店、娱乐场合、餐馆、诊所和宗教场合, 以满意她们之现实性需要,
以便有一个平稳之外籍社区支撑更多之区域里贸易服务。

As the B&R trading nodes are building up and are connecting by trade
vectors, high speed trains, airports, modern harbours and
telecommunication systems, there will be the upgrading of many existing
towns or cities into major international trading hubs; these hubs will
number several tens or dozens interconnected through trades and services
as the economic infrastructure to shape this B&R sphere. These new
cities will have the following functions: provide facilities to enhance
international trading such as transport, logistics, finance, data,
banking, accounting, translation, legal services …etc. and at the same
time become the centre of regional development radiating influence in
surrounding areas. These cities will inevitable draw specialized
professionals from B&R communities and beyond to provide various
services. Also there will be a gradual build up of these B&R expats in
these cities such as the gradual building up of international expats in
Shanghai and Guangzhou when China began to open up since 35 years ago.
Along with these expat communities, there are need to provide daily
services to them as well as their dependents, such as school, shop,
recreation, restaurants, clinic and religious venues catering to their
specific needs in order to have a stable expat community to support the
increasing volumes of inter-regional trade services.

由于跨区域移徙, B 和 R 侨民社区猜测将大增,
这多少个外籍社区以及东道主社会中的动态互动将发深远的学识-宗教影响。本文将对准这种场合展开测算,
并臆想一些或许的结果。本文所用之基本如若有二种:
一是事半功倍推进与带动理论认为,
人类的迁情势首要是由经济力量塑造的–经济条件较差之地段会促使人们离开富裕地区要来重复多之时得到更好的收益,
富裕地区以引发人们来博重新好的经济会与服务。 其次:
人是教影响与散播之要紧活动主体,
几乎有的宗教传教活动。宗教内容需经过信徒的化身来表述,
以同样栽真实的方法来传达宗教的信, 以吸引新的善男信女,
因为宗教不仅仅是千篇一律套工学思想, 而是一种植生活方法, 需要以身形式。第三:
由于传教士可能相会挑衅当地的宗教信仰类别,
像传教士工作这么的故传教活动或会晤变本加厉社会知识紧张。 无意的说教,
如外国侨民社区的存在异常宗教信仰的无所作为证人,
只要这同样部落不自乱东道社会时的社会宗教动态,
就得推社会容忍和多样性。 基于这个使, 本文提议, “B 和 R”
倡议将迎来一个再享有宗教多样性的条件, 扩充宗教间的浮动关系,
并挑衅中国本着商业利益的比方, 这将取而代之了区域中的历史、文化和宗教差距,
经济问题可以摆平社会-宗教紧张关系, 这是华夏经理所持有有的传统观念。但是,
最初的琢磨就明确地标明, 穆斯林极端主义者是由于意识形态造成的,
而休是占便宜及的–贫穷–原因。 中国本着盛和谐之经济开发区的愿景,
可能会师因为特定语境下宗教动态的繁杂使出一般的插花及相对的结局。随着全球政治秩序的频频乱,
b 和 r 倡议可能需要时举行第一调整中国境内的系移民

With the projected increase of B&R expat communities due to
inter-regional migration, there will be profound cultural-religious
implications between the dynamic interactions of these expat communities
and hosting societies. This paper will speculate on such scenario and
conjecture on some of the possible outcomes. There are three basic
presuppositions used in this paper: Firstly the economic push and pull
theory which suggests that that human migration patterns are largely
shaped by economic forces–areas with poor economic conditions will push
people to leave for rich areas where there are more opportunities for
better incomes, and rich areas will attract people to come for better
economic opportunities and services. Secondly: human being is the main
active agent for religious influences and transmission in almost all
religious proselytising activities. Religious content needs to be
expressed through the embodiment of the believers to convey the
religious message in an authentic way to attract new followers as
religion is more than a set of philosophical ideas but rather a way of
live that needs to be demonstrated in a life form. Thirdly: Intentional
proselytising activities such as missionary work may contribute to the
escalation of socio-cultural tensions as missionaries may challenge the
local religious believe system. Unintentional proselytising such as
passive witness of religious faith like the presence of an expat
community may promote social tolerance and diversities so long as this
group does not upset the current socio-religious dynamics of the hosting
society. Based on this these presuppositions, this paper suggests that
the B&R initiative will usher in a more religious diversity environment,
increase inter and intra religious tensions, and challenge the China’s
assumptions on commercial interests that would supersede inter-regional
historical, cultural and religious differences, and that economic ties
can overcome social-religious tensions, a conventional belief held by
Chinese policy makers. However, initial researches have already strongly
suggested that Muslim extreme fundamentalists are caused more by
ideological than by economic–poverty–reasons. China’s vision of a
prosper and harmonious B&R economic zone may general mix and perhaps
opposing consequences depending on the complexity of the religious
dynamics of a particular context. With the increase fluctuating of
global political order, B&R initiative may need constant major
readjustment B&R related Migrants within China

The economic push and pull factors in human migration has well been
documented in China as more than 150 million China’s internal migrants
are moving form mostly impoverished homeland to prosper regions, from
rural areas to urban cities, and from regional cities to metropolitans,
to seek better economic opportunities. Similar patterns are also
observed in Eurasia as migrant workers such as Filipinos in Gulf States,
Indonesians in Hong Kong, Turkish in Germany, or Vietnamese in Taiwan.
Almost all of these migrants are induced by higher incomes in hosting
nations than in their home countries. The flows are often dynamic
responding to economic changes. For example, as China’s rural areas are
improving in economic opportunities since about five years ago, there
has been a decrease in flow of rural population into the Pearl Delta
areas for factory works, and increase flow of population to the second
tier cities as economic tempo is picking up in those cities while the
major urban canters are slowing down the developmental pace. With the
B&R initiatives, one may expect those cities and regions in China
directly benefitted by B&R will attract domestic skilled labours and
professionals from all over China building up B&R related projects.
Those cities will mostly be the Southern coastal provinces and
South-western boarding provinces for the Maritime Belt and the
North-western Provinces for the Silk Road as illustrated shown by the
following picture

http://www.postwesternworld.com/2015/03/10/chinas-pivot-eurasia/
As for domestic migrants, they will mostly be specialized professionals
engaging in trade, commerce, logistic, telecommunication, finance and
transports, as most of these B&R gateway cities, such as those on
Maritime harbour port cities and bordering region cities, will serve as
commercial and transport hub from the China side for OBOR. There may
perhaps be many construction works for building of infrastructures such
as railway and ports, but these construction workers will leave once the
constructions are completed and not leaving any long-term
socio-religious impacts. However the commercial related domestic
professionals drawn from all over the nation, along with their
dependants, will probably stay on to keep these commercial hubs in
function. These internal migrant professionals will most likely be drawn
from major international commercial centres in China such as Shanghai,
Shenzhen and Beijing, where a vast pool of skilled professionals are
readily available.
The second major pool of migrants will be those expats related with B&R
countries. One may expected to see increasing expat populations from
ASEAN countries aggregated in Yunnan, Central and West Asians in
Xinjiang, Central Europeans in Xian, and many others such as Russians,
Iranians, Thais, Indians, Turks, Hungarians..etc. in cities where trade
opportunities are available. Just as one had seen the gradual building
up of Japanese, American and European expat communities in Shanghai and
Beijing when China began the trading with the West since 25 years ago,
and the increase of Korean expat in Northeast China as China-Korean
trade increases. This group of B&R will significantly increase the
international dimension as well as representation of the current expats
in China who are predominantly represented by Westerners (American,
European, Australians) Japanese and Korean.The third group of new
migrants may perhaps be the professionals drawn from overseas Chinese
population as many of them speak Chinese and come from the Chinese
Diaspora communities; and perhaps most may be drawn from the vast pool
of Mainland students who had studies and worked in overseas with
international trading experience and are now seeking opportunities back
in China. They may have a variety of residency or citizenship along with
different relational contacts in China. They are neither entirely
foreigners nor local Chinese and often form their own overseas returnee
communities in China. May have Chinese nationals as spouses and often
may not be part of the expat community of their citizenship.

B&R migrants in China: religious dynamics and interactions

All three groups will have their different cultural-religious values and
interact with local society in various ways. For the first group of
migrants from major commercial Chinese cities, they carry new ideas and
secular values to these mostly second tier cities which are more
traditional and conservative in social values. For example, a Shanghai
accountant will carry with him or her not only the international
auditing standard, but also the social cultural that favours
international commercial activities such as meritocracy than despotism,
gender equality or liberal gender relations. Strain in cultural
difference will be an growing edge for those hosting cities to strive
for development. The potential religious tension would mostly likely be
in Muslim dominated areas of the North Western regions where Islamic
influence are strong to perhaps oppose non Islamic social values such as
the more casual gender relations popular in coastal regions of China
where Western cultural influence are strongest. Should that be the case,
these Muslim dominated areas in North-western part of China would have
to embrace a more diverse society including the acceptances of the more
liberal social values which may contradict the traditional Islamic
social values in order to sustain the B&R operation on China side. Or
some of the Muslims will find these new domestic migrants as a threat
challenging their traditional religious values, and may find various
means to oppose such new incursion of social values leading to social
unrest.
As for the second group, regardless of where they come from, they will
usually bring along with them their own religious culture into the new
hosting Chinese cities which are officially secular or non-religious, as
B&R region contains the majority of the worlds’ Muslim, Buddhist ,
Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zoroastrian as well as the Orthodox
Christian populations. It is also a place where most of the world’s
relgions are originated. Just as the Muslim traders since the 8th
Centuries built up the Muslim community in Asia for generations, these
new B&R expat communities will stay in those gateway Chinese cities for
prolong period of time necessity for trade . They will bring with them
their dependents, their religious practice and their life styles. A
recent example will be the large expat Muslim communities in Yiwu along
with their own schools, shops, mosques and Arabic speaking community.
These Chinese B&R related cities will have to learn to make provisions
for these new communities along with their perhaps exotic religious
practices. It will be an eye opener for many local Chinese who has
little exposure to world religions and some Chinese may even be drawn as
devotees of these religions, just like many in US and Europe are drawn
into Hari Krishna or the Unification Church (the Moonies) in the 1960s
and 1970s.

There is also a high possibility that the new B&R expat groups in China
may also escalate the already strained inter-ethnic relations, such as
the Turkish merchants in Uyghur dominated Xinjiang may promote the
pan-Turkic sentiment which will indirectly lend support to the East
Turkistan Independent Movement challenging the sovereign claim of China
over Xinjiang. Similarly the Jingpo or Dai expat from Myanmar in Yunnan
may bring along with them their own ethnic-political complications from
the tension between Shan or Kachin Autonomous States with the Myanmar
authorities into China which may further destabilizing the already
fragile China border regions with Myanmar and Laos. After all, the
Jingpo ethnic minorities in Yunnan often identify themselves with their
ethnic Jingpo (Kachin) across the border sharing common language,
tradition and religions for centuries; many Jingpo people in China also
serves in the Kachin Independent Army in Myanmar. One can find many of
such examples as many of China’s ethnic minorities have strong ties with
their ethnic counterparts across the China border with increasing
autonomous or ethno-nationalistic sentiments often enhanced by religion.

For the last major group–Chinese overseas returnees, contemporary
research by Yang Fenggang suggested that a high percentage, as much as
30%, of them seemed to embrace Christian faith while they were living
aboard. Such high percentage of Protestant converts among the returnees
are also cause the increasing number of non-registered urban churches
established in major Chinese cities patron by these Chinese returnees.
Many hold foreign citizenship or residency and technically not Chinese
citizens and are in rather grey areas in terms of religious
administration by the Chinese authorities as they may have spouse who
are not foreign passport holders yet they may worship together in a
technically religious venue for foreigners, and often not formally
registered. Contrary to many of the local non-registered groups by
national are often harassed by local authorities, these new urban based
non-registered Christian groups are supported by rich and powerful
patrons who are well connected not only with senior authorities but also
international religious and commercial networks who serves as a
political umbrella to protest these groups from harassments by local
authorities. Their presence may easily cause socio-religious tension as
their religious gatherings may draw many Chinese, often colleagues or
business partners of these religious returnees, to join Christianity,
and some local Christians may be drawn to these powerful elite
communities for protection from harassment by the authority. If that
will be the case, there will be some forms of Foreign Concession zone in
China’s religion landscape, envy by national Christian groups and
resented by local authorities–a situation that the authority may need
to address in future.

Intra B&R migrations: religious dynamics and interactions

As mentioned earlier in this paper, B&R region contains the largest
population of many important world and ethnic religions. Although China
may be the least religious nation, almost all other B&R nations are very
religious with some even embrace religious values as their national
policies, such as the case of Indonesia and Iran. Also there is a
growing tend to have increasing religious influences to foster national
or ethnic identity especially towards the more conservative branches on
national governance and identity, such as in the case of Turkey of
escalating Turkic identity, India of increasing Hinduism as national
identity, Orthodox belief as the de facto Russian national identity, to
name a few. There are also the emergence of extreme religious groups
imposing religious rules political governance, such as the Taliban
movement and the ISIS. Therefore, with the increasing intra B&R migrant
populations, one would expect the new socio-religious challenges from
B&R expats to various hosting B&R nations. These challenges may range
from merely amusement of observing exotic religious practices by the
locals in a tolerance society, to offensive behaviours in the eyes of
the locals, such polytheistic images and worships in a puritanical
religious society such as Hinduism practice in Saudi Arabia, to
escalation of inter-regional rivals, such as Iranian Shiite in
predominate Sunni’s in UAE.
Also some of the interregional tensions, especially those involved with
already tensed ethnic and religious revival between countries such as
Iran and Saudi Arabia, or Pakistan and India, may also be escalated
through the presence of rival expat communities, as these countries are
competing for regional influence in political, religious and in ethnic
dominancy. Social tension may also increase as the presence of some
expat communities could empower, even unintentionally, local minority
groups to challenge the ruling regime, such as Iranian merchants may
encourage the Shiite in Yemen Shiites to oppose the Sunni ruling tribes,
the Kurds in Turkey, the Tamils in Sir Lanka…etc. There are also the
rise religious identity overshadowing national boundaries such as the
co-ordinated demonstrates of Muslims in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia and
Thailand on 25th November, 2016 to support their co-religious Rohingya
in Myanmar.
Currently there are already countless religious-ethnics flash points in
Eurasian Continent, with many dated back for centuries, which are
currently accentuated by the rise of religious fundamentalism mixed with
emergence of nationalism or ethno-centrism. The basic tenet of B&R
co-prosperity sphere is based on the assumption that trade and
commercial interests will override and even overcome the traditional
religious-ethnic tension among rival groups or rival nations. However
often one observe just the opposite in B&R regional rivals is taken
place, such as Israel and the surrounding Arab nations, or
India-Pakistan in Kashmir, that these intensive conflicts are contrary
to any sound economic reasoning. It seems that this China led B&R
initiative could bring socio-political harmony to this ancient Eurasian
land through trade and economic development, or may usher in an new era
of conflict intensification by inter-mixing rival groups is yet to be
seen.

China-B&R religious dynamics interactions.

The increase of Chinese expat merchant or commercial related communities
in B&R nations will also bring new socio-religious dynamics into these
nations. Although China is an non-religious nation, or having the
largest agnostic population in the world, and one can interprets that
there is no religious connotation as Chinese interact with nationals
from B&R region who are predominately religious. However, nationals of
B&R nations with strong religious sentiments may regards Chinese
merchants who are mostly secularists with secular values who will be
crash with local religious social values. It has been well documented
that some Chinese operate restaurants in Afghanistan are doubled as
brothels and served alcohols to local Muslim youth which infuriated
local Muslim communities. Similarly Chinese run bars and brothels in
Peshawar, Pakistan, for international communities yet were patron by
local Muslim youth which had already caused protests from local Mullahs
leading to the riots and casualties at the Red Mosque in 2007. Also the
perhaps hundreds of Chinese prostitutes in Dubai are currently tolerated
by local authorities so long as the customers are non Dubai national;
but there will come to a point of non-toleration if Dubai nations are
involved. It seems many countries were once welcomed Chinese merchants,
especially since the 1990s till the turn of the Century, are gradually
become ambivalence and even hostile toward Chinese merchants for their
generally profit oriented commercialism in lieu of religious sensitivity
to local culture and values. The prolong lack of religious knowledge and
contact among Chinese population becomes a liability when these secular
Chinese merchants with little religious understanding or sensitivity
encounter with people in societies where religion is an essential part
of the cultural milieu.
Furthermore, the aggressiveness of the Chinese merchants, along with
their usually short business cycles especially the small entrepreneurs,
are drawing increasing negative reception from many B&R countries, from
resentment towards the natural resource exploitation in Myanmar, to
disrespect local religious value (mostly Muslim dominated areas), to
insensitive to local customs such as in Thailand towards Buddhist
customs, and to cause the collapse of local industries such as plastic
manufactures in Morocco, are factors that contribute towards the
international resentments against Chinese presences leading to many
incidents of attacks and expulsion of Chinese expat merchants in recent
years from Kyrgyzstan to Vietnam—both are B&R nations. The State Owned
Enterprises Projects in B&R regions, usually conducting large scale
infrastructure project, are often operated in a hermitic compound with
virtually no social interaction with local communities and Chinese
managers and worker are rather naivety towards local religious customs.
Unless Chinese merchants will have a higher sensitivity on religious
cultural of B&R in general, one may expect that the will be an increase
of negative sentiments towards Chinese merchants in B&R region as
religious values seems to be valued over economic benefits observed from
populations in most of the B&Rs nations–a fact that had not been
appreciated by Chinese who are mostly non- religious and secular in
social values.

Intentional proselytising may escalate inter-religious tensions

Traditional many religions in Asia spreads first through merchants and
then missionaries through trade routes as in the case of Islam’s
spreading to Asia.

There is also a similar pattern in the case of Christianity via Silk
Route in 7th Century to China, or the Sea Route since the 16th Centuries
from Europe to Asia. Also sees the spreading of Manichaeism and
Zoroastrianism from East Asian to China via the Silk Route by both
merchants and religious personnel. Buddhism spread from India to China,
and from China to Korea and Japan, through well established trade routes
developed by inter-regional Buddhist traders. The common scenario was
that as some expat merchants took resident in hosting society, they
brought along with them their religion, be it Christianity or Buddhism.
Such religion caught the curiosity and attention of local inhabitants
and some may drawn to the new religion. As this new religious community
grew in size, with increase in trade hence traders and their dependents,
this community would call for some professional clergies back home to
provide religious formation and instruction for continuous religious
observance. For example, when the Arabic speaking Muslim communities
reached a certain size in Indonesia, they invited Imams back home mainly
to maintain their religious observance especially to their younger
generation than to proselytise others. Eventually, the more zealous
members would actively promote their religion to others, and gradually
professional religious proselytisers (missionaries) are involved in
spreading of this new religion. In the case of Marco Polo, his memories
on China aroused interests of Catholic missionaries leading the eventual
Catholic mission movement from Europe to Asia. Historical evidence
suggest that merchants have been often the and unintentional
proselytiser and they served as precursor of missionaries who are
intentional proselytisers.
Currently there are already many proselytising activities taken within
the B&R regions, from Christians trying to convert believers from other
faiths, especially targeting the Muslims as an reaction to the 9/11
aftermath, to the more Fundamentalist Imams to promote the Wahabbi
branch of puritanical Islam, to Zen Buddhist monks to spread
contemporary Buddhist message targeting intellectuals and business
circles, or the Pentecostal pastors to advocate Charismatic movements
within Christianity. In fact, almost all religious groups are actively
conducting their proselyte activities in both inter-religious circles to
win believers to intra religious sphere to promote certain sects or
branches within a particular religion. It will be obvious for the
intentional proselytisers, regardless of their religious affiliation to
utilize whatever means to advance their missionary activities, such as
trade vectors like B&R.
B&R will provide a great opportunity to these intentional proselytisers
as B&R will established a free-flow inter-connected network in trades,
good, services, finances, data and personnel within this huge region.
Proselytisers will take advantage of this network of trade route,
tagging along with merchants just they had done in the past, to spread
their religious messages to whatever places along the B&R trade routes.
Therefore B&R will greatly enhance the current intentional proselytising
activities, as well as to develop new mission field as B&R will enhance
accessibility to regions hitherto not easily reached by outsiders. In
fact there has already been mission works from Christian groups, many
from non-registered sectors in China, by sending Chinese Christian
missionaries to Central and East Asian to convert the Muslim
populations, and B&R will surely provide a great opportunity for these
mission groups to intensify such movement. From both the historical
evident and current religious dynamics, B&R will induce a more intensify
level of inter-regional proselyte activities escalating the
socio-religious tension of the region and perhaps complicated the
already delicate inter-regional political relations.

Conclusion

中原官员的 B 和 R 将迎来一个还连贯的欧亚大陆经济领域,
它或许进化成为一个指点全球经济的经济实体,
特别是当世界两好经济体的走强时, 欧盟正碰着英美出口的挑战。
随着新的经济时在出现, B 和 R
区域交易之扩大吗用导致区域外同其中的人口迁移扩大。 这个新移民,
特别是缘于其他 b 和 r 国民的口, 他们之历史观大多是教的,
包括世界上无比老之社会风气教的总人口, 无论是古时候仍旧当代。
那一个新移徙者将无意地用宗教及习俗带入那些主人社会,
并将增长社会以及宗教的多样性, 并有助于增强当地人口底社会容忍度。 不过,
有意传教的传教士, 传统上以商人建立之交易路线, 或抬高区域间的商业活动,
将长地点的宗教动态。 那个有意的 proselytisers 将征集新的皈依者,
从此外迷信或不同的温和派分支在同样信仰中,
导致更多之社会宗教紧张关系的司社会,
创设重多之太或新的宗教团体社区普通对本地社区不满。此外,
中国民众普遍短宗教经验, 因而宗教敏感性,
可能会合指向阻止中美关系发展之国家造成负面心思。因而, B 和 R
倡议将促进一个还多样化的社会-宗教社会, 这可能会晤推动又胜似层次的社会容忍,
从而导致一个再度和谐之社会, 或者可能使早已紧张之社会-宗教紧张事势升级,
导致破坏性的社会同区域分裂。至于中国之初经济景气之愿景,
以取代如今底社会-宗教史的残破破碎之同非昌之 b 和 r 地区还有待检验。

本着中华来说,
经济提升是同样件高风险、高成本、经济报不确定的举动。宗教层面将长这么些宏伟项目之高风险程度及财力因素。由于美利哥对华当北冰洋底死,
中国底原油供应安全, 巨额外汇储备的积攒, 以及基础设备建设之超能力,
中国被迫采纳这种稳定。但是, 随着中国暨天底下经济之减速,
美利坚联邦合众国对华夏施压的或是缩减, 东尼斯政乱缓和, 中东和叙孟菲斯撞加剧,
Britexit 和民族主义欧盟国家之情怀, 可能会师起局部比小的本替代方案,
中国的海内外事务上一个不行预知的时代。也许混沌理论能于大家的水晶球出点光–期待出人意料的工作。

The China-led B&R will usher in a more connected Eurasia economic sphere
which may develop into an economic entity leading the global economy
especially when the strengthen of world’s two largest economies, the EU
as it is under challenged by the exit of Britain and USA as the
Present-elected Trump cause uncertainties volatilities in Market, are
weakening in global economic influence. However the increase inter-B&R
region trades will also lead to increase of inter and intra regional
human migrations as new economic opportunities are emerging. These new
migrants, especially those from other B&R nationals which are mostly
religious in values as B&R contains the world’s largest populations of
most of the world religions, be it ancient or contemporary. These new
migrants will unintentionally carry with them religions and practices
new to their hosting societies, and will enhance the socio-religious
diversities as well as to contribute to the increase of social
tolerances of the local population. However the intentional
missionaries, traditionally following the trade routes established by
merchants, or tagging along with inter-regional commercial activities,
will put increase to the local religious dynamics. These intentional
proselytisers will recruit new converts be it from other faiths or
different moderate branches within the same faith, leading to increase
of socio-religious tensions of the hosting society by creating more
extreme or new groups of religious communities usually resented by local
communities. Furthermore, the general lack of religious experience,
hence religious sensitivities, among Chinese population may contribute
negative sentiment against China among B&R nations hindering Sino-B&R
relations. As a result, B&R initiatives will contribute to a more
diverse socio-religious society which may promote a higher level of
social tolerance leading to a more harmonious society, or may escalated
the already strained social-religious tensions, leading to a destructive
social and regional fragmentation. As for China’s vision of a new
economic prosper B&R region to replace the current
socio-religious-historical fragmented and underdeveloped B&R region is
yet to be tested.

For China, B&R is an economic development initiative high risk, high
cost and with uncertain economic returns. The religious dimension would
increase the risk level and cost factors for this grand project. China
is forced to take such orientation due to the US containment of China in
the Pacific, China’s security of oil supply, the accumulating of huge
foreign reserves, and the available of over capacity in building of
infrastructure. However, with the slowing down of Chinese and global
economy, the perhaps decrease of US pressure on China, de-escalation of
political tension in South China Sea, the intensification of conflicts
in Middle East vis Syria and ISIS, the Britexit and nationalistic
sentiments in EU nations, there may be some lesser costing alternatives
for China B&R as our Global Affairs enters into an age of
unpredictability. Perhaps Chaos Theory can shed some lights to our
Crystal Ball–expect the unexpected.

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