韦德国际app官方甘比精读

Day 23: Words & Phrases Ⅰ

– strike

  1. (not used in the progressive tenses) (of a thought or an idea) to
    come into sb’s mind suddenly
  • An awful thought has just struck me.
    刚刚自家脑子里突然闪过二个骇人传闻的遐思。
  • I was struck by her resemblance to my aunt.
    本身猛然察觉他长得跟自家三姑很像。
  • It suddenly struck me how we could improve the situation.
    自个儿弹指间知情大家如何能革新局面了。
  1. ~ sb (as sth) to give sb a particular impression
  • His reaction struck me as odd.
    他的影响令本身惊叹。
  • How does the idea strike you?
    你认为那一个意见如何?
  • She strikes me as a very efficient person.
    以作者之见,她是个很干练的人。
  • It strikes me that nobody is really in favour of the changes.
    自家认为没人真正赞成那么些改动。

– defile

A defile is a very narrow valley or passage, usually through
mountains.

– crowd

  1. to fill a place so there is little room to move
  • Thousands of people crowded the narrow streets.
    成都百货上千的人把狭窄的街道挤得水泄不通。
  1. to fill your mind so that you can think of nothing else
  • Memories crowded his mind.
    往事涌上他的心坎。
  1. (informal) to stand very close to sb so that they feel
    uncomfortable or nervous

– perch

A perch is a temporary resting place. In the middle of climbing a
tree, you might find a good perch on a high branch. Bet some birds
will be perching there too. Perch has many different meanings. A
bird perch is a little stick it can balance on, and the armrest of
the couch can offer you a perch during a party. It’s also the name of
a kind of fish with spiny fins.

  1. [V] ~ (on sth) (of a bird) to land and stay on a branch, etc.
  • A robin was perching on the fence.
    二头知更鸟落在篱笆上。
  1. ~ (sb / yourself) (on sth) (informal) to sit or to make sb sit
    on sth, especially on the edge of it
  • We perched on a couple of high stools at the bar.
    作者们坐在酒吧的多少个高脚凳上。
  • She perched herself on the edge of the bed.
    她坐在牀沿上。
  1. [V] ~ (on sth) to be placed on the top or the edge of sth
  • The hotel perched precariously on a steep hillside.
    旅舍立在陡峭的山坡上状似摇摇欲坠。

– crag

a high steep rough mass of rock

  • a castle set on a crag above the village
    置身村子上方悬崖上的城堡

– sustenance

Sustenance comes from the word sustain, which means to continue.
Sustenance is food or drink that allows you to continue to be
alive
. For many, prayer is a source of spiritual sustenance.
If your chief source of sustenance is candy, you are going to get
sick, but you will have a good time while it lasts. In much of the
world, rice and beans provide sustenance to human beings. In the US,
Native Americans taught Europeans how to grow corn, which turned into
a major source of sustenance for their population.

– rival

~ sb / sth (for / in sth) to be as good, impressive, etc. as sb / sth
else
【SYN】 compare with

  • You will find scenery to rival anything you can see in the Alps.
    你能见到的景致可与您在阿尔卑斯山所见的山水相媲美。
  • This latest design has no rivals (= it is easily the best design
    available).
    那种新型样式独占鳌头。
  • has no rivals or is without rival
    不曾对手;独一无二;无人能及;

– necessarily

used to say that sth cannot be avoided

  • The number of places available is necessarily limited.
    可用地方的数目不可制止地很容易。

【IDIOMS】 not necessarily
used to say that sth is possibly true but not definitely or always
true

  • The more expensive articles are not necessarily better.
    较贵的东西不见得就较好。
  • Biggest doesn’t necessarily mean best.
    最大的不肯定是最好的。
  • ‘We’re going to lose.’ ‘Not necessarily.’
    “大家会输的。” “未必。”

– scanty

We refer to an amount or thing that is not quite enough as scanty,
or lacking. It’s an adjective used to describe something that
doesn’t offer enough
, as in “farmers having a scanty crop in a
drought year.”
The adjective scanty comes from the Old Norse scamt, which means
“short or brief,” and so suggests a small amount. The word usually
suggests a meager amount, and can refer to anything that is barely
sufficient. Someone trying to stretch a meal might offer scanty
servings. On a humorous note, a Roaring Twenties flapper referred to
her underwear as scanties.

– battle-ground

  1. a place where a battle is being fought or has been fought
  1. You can refer to an issue or field of activity over which people
    disagree or compete as a battleground.
  • //…the battleground of education…
    春风化雨这一备受争议的小圈子
  • Children’s literature is an ideological battleground.
    小孩子工学是各类意识形态交锋的战地。

– extent

the physical size of an area

  • You can’t see the full extent of the beach from here.
    从此刻不恐怕看到沙滩全貌。
  • The region is over 10,000 square kilometres in extent.

– revolve around

  1. [not in progressive] to have something as a main subject or
    purpose
    :
  • Jane’s life revolves around her children.
  • The argument revolved around costs.
  • She seems to think that the world revolves around her (=that she
    is the only important person)
    .
  1. to move in circles around something
  • The moon revolves around the Earth.

– alike

  1. in a very similar way
  • They tried to treat all their children alike.
    她俩尽或者对本人的子女不分互相。
  1. used after you have referred to two people or groups, to mean
    ‘both’ or ‘equally’
  • Good management benefits employers and employees alike.
    特出的保管对雇主和雇员同样有益。

– outpost

  1. a small military camp away from the main army, used for watching
    an enemy’s movements, etc.
  1. a small town or group of buildings in a lonely part of a country
  • a remote outpost
    边远的乡镇
  • the last outpost of civilization
    桃红柳绿的边缘地带

– highroad

  1. (old-fashioned) a main road
  1. take the (moral) high road to do what you believe is right
    according to your beliefs:
  • Daley has taken the high road in his campaign.

– seat

~ of sth (formal) a place where people are involved in a particular
activity
, especially a city that has a university or the offices of
a government

  • Washington is the seat of government of the US.
    华盛顿是美利坚合众国政坛所在地。
  • a university town renowned as a seat of learning
    有学问主旨之称的高校城

– throw off

If you throw off something that is restricting you or making you
unhappy, you get rid of it.

  • //…a country ready to throw off the shackles of its colonial
    past…
    即将摆脱过去殖民枷锁的国度
  • One day depression descended upon him, and wherever he went after
    that he could never throw it off.
    有一天,他猛然开头消沉起来,从那未来,无论她走到哪儿也超脱不了那种心态。

– yoke

(literary or formal) rough treatment or sth that restricts your
freedom and makes your life very difficult to bear

  • the yoke of imperialism
    帝国主义的束缚

– spoil

  1. the spoils [pl.] (formal or literary) goods taken from a
    place by thieves or by an army that has won a battle or war
  1. spoils [pl.] the profits or advantages that sb gets from being
    successful
  • the spoils of high office
    身居高位的有关利益

– contend

  1. (formal) to say that sth is true, especially in an argument

**【SYN】 maintain **

  • I would contend that the minister’s thinking is flawed on this
    point.
    作者倒觉得局长的想法在那一点上有漏洞。
  1. ** ~ (for sth) ** to compete against sb in order to gain sth
  • Three armed groups were contending for power.
    多个武装企业在决斗权力。

**【拓展】contend with sth **
to have to deal with a problem or difficult situation

  • Nurses often have to contend with violent or drunken patients.
    护师日常只可以对付无情的或喝醉酒的患儿。

– pharaoh

a ruler of ancient Egypt

– oriental

connected with or typical of the eastern part of the world,
especially China and Japan, and the people who live there

  • oriental languages
    东面语言

– occupation

the act of moving into a country, town, etc. and taking control of
it using military force
; the period of time during which a country,
town, etc. is controlled in this way

  • the Roman occupation of Britain
    亚特兰洲大学人对不列颠的占领
  • The areas under occupation contained major industrial areas.
    被占领地区颇具首要的工业区。
  • occupation forces
    占领军

– occupation

the act of moving into a country, town, etc. and taking control of
it using military force
; the period of time during which a country,
town, etc. is controlled in this way

  • the Roman occupation of Britain
    奥克兰人对不列颠的拿下
  • The areas under occupation contained major industrial areas.
    被占领地区享有主要的工业区。
  • occupation forces
    占领军

– people

[usually passive] ~ sth (with sth) to live in a place or fill it
with people

  • The town was peopled largely by workers from the car factory and
    their families.
    其一镇上的居住者大多数份都是小车厂的工人及其家属。
  • The ballroom was peopled with guests.
    舞厅里满堂宾客。

– akin

~ to sth (formal) similar to

  • What he felt was more akin to pity than love.
    她感触到的更像怜悯,而不是爱。

– blood

You can use blood to refer to the race or social class of
someone’s parents or ancestors. [usu supp N]

  • There was Greek blood in his veins…
    他有希腊共和国血统。
  • He was of noble blood, and an officer.
    他身家贵族,是一名军人。

– speech

  1. the way in which a particular person speaks
  • Her speech was slurred—she was clearly drunk.
    他说道含混不清——她显著是喝醉了。
  1. the language used when speaking
  • This expression is used mainly in speech, not in writing.
    这种表明重要用于口语,而不是书面语。
  • speech sounds
    语音

– tribe

(sometimes offensive) (in developing countries) a group of people of
the same race, and with the same customs, language, religion,
etc., living in a particular area and often led by a chief

【区别】race
Race can also mean genetic grouping. One of the main groups that
humans can be divided into according to their physical
differences
, for example the colour of their skin

– notably

  1. used for giving a good or the most important example of sth
    【SYN】 especially
  • The house had many drawbacks, most notably its price.
    那房子有广大毛病,特别是它的价格。
  1. to a great degree
    【SYN】 remarkably
  • This has not been a notably successful project.
    以此项目并未博得十分大的中标。

– descend from somebody / something

  1. be descended from somebody to be related to a person or group who
    lived a long time ago:
  • She claims to be descended from Abraham Lincoln.
  • The people here are descended from the Vikings.
  1. to have developed from something that existed in the past
    【SYN】come from
  • ideas that descend from those of ancient philosophers

– Taurus

  1. the second sign of the zodiac , the Bull
  1. [sing.] a person born under the influence of this sign, that is
    between 21 April and 21 May

【拓展】 Twelve Constellations

韦德国际app官方 1

Constellation.jpeg

– fling

to throw sb / sth somewhere with force, especially because you are
angry
**【SYN】 hurl **:

  • Someone had flung a brick through the window.
    有人把一块砖扔进了窗户。
  • The door was suddenly flung open.
    门突然被推向了。
  • He had his enemies flung into prison.
    他把仇人投进了牢房。

【拓展 】
■ fling yourself into sth
to start to do sth with a lot of energy and enthusiasm

  • They flung themselves into the preparations for the party.
    她俩心向往之地准备团圆饭。

■ fling sth∽off / on
to** take off or put on clothing** in a quick and careless way

  • He flung off his coat and collapsed on the sofa.
    他顺手脱掉大衣,倒在沙发上。

– admixture

Admixture means the same as mixture.

  • //…an admixture of fact and fantasy.
    内情结合

– conquest

  1. the act of taking control of a country, city, etc. by force
  • the Norman Conquest (= of England in 1066)
    Norman战胜(即 1066 年Norman人制伏United Kingdom)
  1. an area of land taken by force
  • the Spanish conquests in South America
    法国人在亚洲的占领地
  1. (usually humorous) a person that sb has persuaded to love them or to
    have sex with them
  • I’m just one of his many conquests.
    自个儿只有是她的无数擒拿之一。
  1. the act of gaining control over sth that is difficult or
    dangerous
  • the conquest of inflation
    对通胀的支配

– Israelitish

adj. 犹太人的,希伯来人的,古以色列国(The State of Israel)(人)的
Israelite: a member of the ancient Hebrew nation described in the
Bible

– storm

If a place that is being defended is stormed, a group of people
attack it, usually in order to get inside it.

  • Government buildings have been stormed and looted…
    当局楼堂馆所遭到了抨击和掠夺。
  • The refugees decided to storm the embassy.
    难民们决定冲进大使馆。

【拓展】 storming

  • //…the storming of the Bastille.
    巴士底狱的占领

– massacre

  1. [n] the killing of a large number of people especially in a
    cruel way
  • the bloody massacre of innocent civilians
    对无辜百姓的血腥杀戮
  • Nobody survived the massacre.
    此次屠杀无人制止。
  1. (informal) a very big defeat in a game or competition
  • The game was a 10–0 massacre for our team.
    这场交锋大家队以 0:10 小败。
  1. [v.] to kill a large number of people, especially in a cruel
    way
  2. (informal) to defeat sb in a game or competition by a high score

– intermingle

~ (A) (with B) | ~ A and B (formal) to mix people, ideas, colours,
etc. together; to be mixed in this way

  • The book intermingles fact with fiction.
    那本书事实和编造并存。
  • The book intermingles fact and fiction.
    这本书事实和推波助澜并存。
  • tourists and local people intermingling in the market square
    会面在市镇广场上的游客和当地人

– captive

  1. kept as a prisoner or in a confined space; unable to escape
  • captive animals
    关在笼子里的动物
  • They were taken captive by masked gunmen.
    他俩被覆盖的拿出歹徒勒迫了。
  • captive breeding (= the catching and breeding of wild animals)
    野生动物的人造捕获饲养
  1. [only before noun] not free to leave a particular place or to
    choose what you want do to
  • A salesman loves to have a captive audience (= listening because
    they have no choice).
    推销商喜欢不得不听的客官。
  1. [noun] a person who is kept as a prisoner, especially in a war

– surmount

  1. If you surmount a problem or difficulty, you deal successfully
    with it.
  • I realized I had to surmount the language barrier.
    自家发觉到自作者不得不打败语言障碍。
  1. If something is surmounted by a particular thing, that thing is on
    top of it.
  • The island is surmounted by a huge black castle.
    岛的最高处耸立着一座宏伟的鲜黄城堡。

– Jewish

connected with Jews or Judaism; believing in and practising Judaism

  • We’re Jewish.
    咱俩是犹太人。
  • the local Jewish community
    当地的犹太人群众体育

– countenance

If someone will not countenance something, they do not agree with
it and will not allow it to happen.

  • Jake would not countenance Janis’s marrying while still a
    student.Jack不会容许贾布兰太尔还在求学就结婚。
  • //…the military men who refused to countenance the overthrow of
    the president.拒绝扶助推翻总统的军官们

– intermarry

  1. to marry sb of a different race or from a different
    country
    or a different religious group
  • Blacks and whites often intermarried (= married each other).
    黄人和黄种人时有通婚。
  • They were not forbidden to intermarry with the local people.
    他俩未被取缔与土著人通婚。
  1. to marry sb within your own family or group
  • cousins who intermarry
    近亲结婚的堂表兄弟姐妹

– genealogy

  1. the study of family history, including the study of who the
    ancestors of a particular person were
  1. a particular person’s line of ancestors ; a diagram that shows
    this

【拓展】 genealogical

  • a genealogical chart / table / tree (= a chart with branches
    that shows a person’s ancestors )
    系谱图;家谱表;家系树状图

– Solomon

used to talk about a very wise person

  • In this job you need to exhibit the wisdom of Solomon.
    做那份工作索要表现出Solomon王一样的聪明才智。

【ORIGIN】
From Solomon in the Bible, a king of Israel who was famous for being
wise.
溯源《圣经》中以智慧着称的以色列(Israel)王Solomon。

– homage

~ (to sb / sth) (formal) something that is said or done to show
respect
for sb

  • The kings of France paid homage to no one.
    法兰西共和国天王不对任哪个人效忠。
  • He describes his book as ‘a homage to my father’.
    她说他的书是”献给阿爸”的。

– shrine

  1. ~ (to sb / sth) | ~ (of sb / sth) a place where people come to
    worship because it is connected with a holy person or event
  • a shrine to the Virgin Mary
    供奉圣母玛那格浦尔的朝圣地
  • to visit the shrine of Mecca
    前去圣地葵加朝圣
  1. ~ (to sb / sth) | ~ (for sb) a place that people visit because it is
    connected with sb / sth that is important to them
  • Wimbledon is a shrine for all lovers of tennis.
    温布尔登是兼具网球爱好者的圣地。

– embody

  1. to express or represent an idea or a quality
    【SYN】 represent
  • a politician who embodied the hopes of black youth
    表示白种人青年希望的法学家
  • the principles embodied in the Declaration of Human Rights
    反映在《人权宣言》中的原则
  1. (formal) to include or contain sth
  • This model embodies many new features.
    那种型号具有众多新特征。

– ascribe sth to sb / sth

  1. to consider that sth is caused by a particular thing or person
  • He ascribed his failure to bad luck.
    他认为自个儿的挫败是命局不佳。
  1. to consider that sb / sth has or should have a particular
    quality
  • We ascribe great importance to these policies.
    咱俩以为那一个策略13分首要。

【拓展】
ascribable ~ to sb / sth

  • Their success is ascribable to the quality of their goods.
    她们的功成名就在于商品的材料。

♦ **ascription ~ (to sb / sth) **

  • the ascription of meaning to objects and events
    东西所负有的内蕴

– prophecy

A prophecy is a statement in which someone says they strongly believe
that a particular thing will happen.

  • The youth, too, fulfilled the prophecy.
    老大年轻人,同样地,让预感说中了。

– mould

~ sb / sth (into sb / sth) to strongly influence the way sb’s
character, opinions, etc. develop

  • The experience had moulded and coloured her whole life.
    本次经历影响了他的百年。
  • He moulded them into a superb team.
    他将她们塑造成一支杰出的行伍。

– hardy

Hardy means tough––if you’re hardy, you don’t get tired easily and
can endure hardship. People who don’t catch cold often attribute this
fact to their coming from hardy farming stock.
Before 1200, hardy indicated boldness and daring in battle and was
probably influenced by hard. Warriors are hardy: they’re brave and
strong and don’t easily tire. Plants and animals can also be hardy
if they can survive harsh weather or poor growing conditions
. When
planting a lawn, you should pick hardy species of grass, which will
survive droughts and come back after long, cold winters.

– fastness

A fastness is a place, such as a castle, which is considered safe
because it is difficult to reach or easy to defend against attack.

– tempted

If you say that you are tempted to do something, you mean that you
would like to do it.

  • I’m very tempted to sell my house.
    自个儿很想把本身的房舍卖掉。
  • She’d never even felt tempted to return.
    她居然不曾动过回到的胸臆。

– exodus

~ (from…) (to…) (formal or humorous) a situation in which many
people leave a place at the same time

  • the mass exodus from Paris to the country in the summer
    秋季巨大人从法国首都飞往到乡村

– vassal

a country that depends on and is controlled by another country

– intercourse

Social intercourse is communication between people as they spend
time together.

  • There was social intercourse between the old and the young.
    老者与青少年中间有社会交往。

– unintelligible

~ (to sb)** impossible to understand**
【SYN】 incomprehensible

  • She turned away and muttered something unintelligible.
    她转载一旁,嘴里不知咕哝些什么。
  • A lot of the jargon they use is unintelligible to outsiders.
    她俩所用的汪洋行话是客人听不懂的。

– underlie

[no passive] (formal) to be the basis or cause of sth

  • These ideas underlie much of his work.
    他的文章超越贰分之一份都以以那个大旨思想为根基。
  • It is a principle that underlies all the party’s policies.
    那是贯通该党各项政策的一条轨道。

– narrative

a description of events, especially in a novel

  • a gripping narrative of their journey up the Amazon
    她俩沿亚马孙河而上的感人的描述

– testimony

When you give testimony **you are telling what you saw or what you
know. **Your testimony that your hand was not in the cookie jar goes
against the testimony of several eyewitnesses.
The Latin root for testimony is testis, meaning “ witness.” “Eye
witness testimony” is a phrase you will hear often in legal
discussions. An object can also give testimony, without speaking of
course: “The statue they built of you outside the bowling alley offers
testimony to your greatness.”

– forthcoming

You know when you go to a movie and they show the previews under the
heading “coming soon?” They could just as well say forthcoming,
because it means the same thing. Only who would want to see that
stuffy movie?
“Forthcoming with” means “providing“––if your neighbors are not
forthcoming with candy on Halloween, you might have to egg their
house. When parents complain that their teenagers are not
forthcoming with
information about their life at school, they should
remember how much they valued their privacy when they were their kid’s
age.

– scrap

A scrap of something is a very small piece or amount of it.

  • A crumpled scrap of paper was found in her handbag…
    在他的提包里发现了一张皱Baba的小纸片。
  • They need every scrap of information they can get.
    别的能够拿走的新闻他们都亟需。

– glean

~ sth (from sb / sth) to obtain information, knowledge etc.,
sometimes with difficulty and often from various different places

  • These figures have been gleaned from a number of studies.
    这几个数量是因而反复研究收集得来的。

– tortured

suffering severely; involving a lot of suffering and difficulty

  • a tortured mind
    痛心的心

– fable

A fable is a moral tale that often features animal characters.
“The Tortoise and the Hare” (龟兔赛跑)is a well-known fable whose
moral is “Slow and steady wins the race.”
We often associate fables with the master of them all, Aesop. Among
the most famous fables attributed to this storyteller of ancient
Greece are “The Boy Who Cried 沃尔夫”(狼来了) and “The Fox and the
Grapes.” (狐狸与葡萄)But like its cousins tale, myth, and legend,
the word fable is also used to describe a deliberate fabrication or
fiction
. In other words, it can be a polite way to describe a lie.

  • Aesop’s Fables
    伊索寓言

– startling

Something that’s startling is so unexpected that it shocks or
surprises you
. It would be startling to open your front door and see
a clown standing there.
Startling events or circumstances aren’t necessarily frightening,
though they can be. A surprise party, if it’s planned right, is
startling, and it can be startling the first time you meet your best
friend’s identical twin sister. Alarm clocks, smoke alarms, and
barking dogs can all be equally startling. They **startle you **—
and startle comes from start, with its Old English root styrtan, “to
leap up.”

– throw / shed / cast / light on something

to provide new information that helps you understand something

  • I had hoped that he would be able to shed some light on the problem.

– illuminate

  1. to shine light on sth
  • Floodlights illuminated the stadium.
    泛光灯照亮了操场。
  • The earth is illuminated by the sun.
    日光照亮地球。
  1. (formal) to make sth clearer or easier to understand
    【SYN】 clarify
  • This text illuminates the philosopher’s early thinking.
    那篇课文解释了那位文学家的中期思想。

– library

  1. (formal) a personal collection of books, CDs, etc.
  • a new edition to add to your library
    可珍藏的新本子
  1. a series of books, recordings, etc. produced by the same company
    and similar in appearance
  • a library of children’s classics
    小孩子历史学名着系列丛书

– disinter

  1. to dig up sth, especially a dead body, from the ground
  1. ~ sth (from sth) to find sth that has been hidden or lost for a
    long time

Day 24: Words & Phrases Ⅱ

– yield up

If you yield up a secret, you reveal it.

  • //…asking law firms to yield up their deepest secrets.
    务求律师事务所揭破其隐身最深的机要

– tablet

Clay tablets or stone tablets are the flat pieces of clay or stone
which people used to **write on before paper was invented. **

  • He also studied the ancient stone tablets from around the
    pyramids.他还探究了在金字塔周围发现的汉朝石匾。

– contemporary

a** person who lives or lived at the same time as sb** else,
especially sb who is about the same age

  • She and I were contemporaries at college.
    她和自身在高等高校是同班。
  • He was a contemporary of Freud and may have known him.
    他是Freud的同代人,大概认识Freud。

– autograph

a famous person’s signature, especially when sb asks them to write it

  • Could I have your autograph?
    自个儿能请您签个名吧?

– heyday

the time when sb / sth had most power or success, or was most
popular

  • In its heyday, the company ran trains every fifteen minutes.
    商店在最发达时代每隔十四分钟就开出一列列车。
  • a picture of Brigitte Bardot in her heyday
    碧姬 · 芭铎事业兴旺时的一张照片

– net

final, after all the important facts have been included

  • The net result is that small shopkeepers are being forced out of
    business.
    最终结果是小店主被挤出了那一个行业。
  • a net gain
    终极收益

– In the true sense of the word

  • We are actually patriots in the true sense of the word.
    笔者们实际是的确意义上的爱国者.
  • But even with aforementioned possibilities,it is not necessary to
    continue to be friends,at least not in the true sense of the word.
    正是出现上述种种或许,双方也不必然继续以情侣相称,至少不是确实含义的朋友.

-decrepit

Something that is decrepit is old and in bad condition. Someone
who is decrepit is old and weak.

  • The film had been shot in a decrepit old police station.
    该电影是在一所破旧不堪的警方里拍片的。
  • ..a decrepit old man.
    年老体衰的长者

– barbarian

  1. someone from a different tribe or land, who people believe to be
    wild and not civilized
  • The Roman Empire came under severe pressure from the barbarians
    across the Rhine.
  1. someone who does not behave properly, and does not show proper
    respect for education
    , art etc:
  • The youths were described as uncivilised barbarians who savagely
    attacked innocent victims.
  1. someone who behaves in a way that is cruel and uncivilized

– annals

Annals are chronological historical records. Some annals recount
the achievements of war heroes; others, in the form of high school
yearbooks, record historically terrible hairstyles.

– deem

to think of something in a particular way or as having a
particular quality
【SYN 】consider

  • They deemed that he was no longer capable of managing the
    business.
  • They were told to take whatever action they deemed necessary.
  • They were deemed to be illegal immigrants.

– dogmatic

If you say that someone is dogmatic, you are critical of them because
they are convinced that they are right, and refuse to consider that
other opinions might also be justified
. [disapproval]

  • Many writers at this time held rigidly dogmatic views…
    那如今有过多大手笔固执己见。
  • The regime is dogmatic, and no one dares to express personal
    opinions.
    该政权很专制,没有人敢表达个人意见。

【拓展】dogmatically

  • He applies the Marxist world view dogmatically to all social
    phenomena.
    他将马克思主义的人生观教条地使用到持有的社会气象中去。

– dwarf

If one person or thing is dwarfed by another, the second is so
much bigger than the first that it makes them look very small
.

  • His figure is dwarfed by the huge red McDonald’s sign…
    在高大的庚午革命麦当劳标志牌下,他显示不够高小。
  • The US air travel market dwarfs that of Britain.
    与美利坚合资国宇宙航行旅行商场比起来,United Kingdom的飞行旅行商场大相径庭。

– canon

Canon is all about authoritative standards—for literature,
sainthood, or behavior. Don’t confuse it with cannon with two n’s, the
big gun that shoots bowling-size balls at the enemy.

– peremptorily

(formal)in a way that allows no discussion or refusal

  • She peremptorily rejected the request.
    他断然拒绝了请求。

– court

If you laugh someone out of court, you say that their opinions or
ideas are so ridiculous that they are not worth considering.

  • It’s easy for a younger generation of critics to laugh Limon out of
    court…
    年轻一代的批评家很简单对利蒙的见地一笑置之。
  • Polytechnic lecturers have asked for 12.5 per cent, a claim sure to
    be laughed out of court.
    理管理学校的助教要求12.5%,这一渴求一定不会予以考虑。

– incredulous

If someone is incredulous, they are unable to believe something
because it is very surprising or shocking.

  • ‘He made you do it?’ Her voice was incredulous…“
    她强迫你做的?”她的口吻里带着狐疑。
  • There was a brief, incredulous silence.
    有一段短暂的充满猜疑的沉默寡言。

– relegate

If you relegate someone or something to a less important position,
you give them this position.

  • Might it not be better to relegate the King to a purely ceremonial
    function?…
    让皇上变成纯粹发挥典礼仪式上表示意义的元首会不会更好?
  • Other newspapers relegated the item to the middle pages.
    别的的报刊文章把那条消息降格广播发表,放到了中间版面。

– veritable

You can use veritable to emphasize the size, amount, or nature of
something.

  • //…a veritable feast of pre-match entertainment.尽情的赛前玩耍享受
  • //…a veritable army of security guards.一支真正的警卫部队

– restore

To restore someone or something to a previous condition means to
cause them to be in that condition once again.

  • We will restore her to health but it may take time…
    咱俩会让他恢复健康,但只怕须求部分时间。
  • He said the ousted president must be restored to power…
    她说被打倒的总统必须重新掌权。
  • His country desperately needs Western aid to restore its ailing
    economy.
    她的国家必要西方援救以复苏其不景气的经济。

– contemporaneous

If two events or situations are contemporaneous, they happen or
exist during the same period of time
.

  • //…the contemporaneous development of a separate and quite
    recognisable Scottish school of art.
    贰个独门而同理可得的苏格兰艺术流派的还要发展

– pun

A pun is a play on words. If a bird flying overhead takes a poop
on the cake you’re carrying, you could say “Isn’t that just the icing
on the cake!” But only if you want to be punny.
Friend of the double entendre and other witticisms, a pun is a comedic
phrase that plays off of the sounds and double meanings of words.
Puns can be quite clever, but often come off as silly, cheeseball
attempts at humor. That’s probably why any good comedian will tell you
that “a pun is a short quip followed by a long groan.”

– entitle

If you are entitled to something, you have the right to have it
or do it.

  • If the warranty is limited, the terms may entitle you to a
    replacement or refund…
    假定保修有限制,根据条款你大概能够须要退换也许退款。
  • They are entitled to first class travel…他们能够坐头等舱旅行。
  • There are 23 Clubs throughout the U.S., and your membership entitles
    you to enjoy all of them.
    全美国共产党有23家俱乐部,您的会员身份可让您分享全体俱乐部的劳务。

– inscription

words written in the front of a book or cut in stone or metal

– scrupulous

  1. careful about paying attention to every detail

【SYN】 meticulous

  • You must be scrupulous about hygiene when you’re preparing a baby’s
    feed.
    给新生儿准备食物时,对衞生丝毫偷工减料不得。
  • scrupulous attention to detail
    观测入微
  1. ~ (in sth / in doing sth) careful to be honest and do what is right
  • He was scrupulous in all his business dealings.
    他在所做的整个商贸中都是一清二白的。

【拓展】 scrupulously

  • Her house is scrupulously clean.
    他的家干干净净,一清二白。
  • to be scrupulously honest
    颇为诚实

– nay

You use nay in front of a stronger word or phrase which you feel is
more correct than the one you have just used and helps to emphasize
the point you are making.

  • He was grateful for and proud of his son’s remarkable, nay, unique
    performance…
    他为儿子能够的,不,应该是环球无双的演出心怀多谢和孤高。
  • Long essays, nay, whole books have been written on this.
    千千万万大书特书的篇章,不,应该说是整部整部的书都以有关那件事的。

– deliver

If someone delivers you from something, they rescue or save you
from it.

  • I have given thanks to God for delivering me from that
    pain.小编谢谢上帝把本身从那种痛楚中解救出来。

– presuppose

If one thing presupposes another, the first thing cannot be true or
exist unless the second thing is true or exists.

  • All your arguments presuppose that he’s a rational, intelligent
    man…
    您具备论点的前提都以她是3个悟性而聪慧的人。
  • The end of an era presupposes the start of another.
    三个时日的终结表示另二个权且的伊始。

– pardon

If someone who has been found guilty of a crime is pardoned, they are
officially allowed to go free and are not punished.

  • Hundreds of political prisoners were pardoned and
    released.数百名政治犯被特赦释放。

Pardon is also a noun.

  • He was granted a presidential pardon.他收获了总理的特赦。

– throne

  1. A throne is a decorative chair used by a king, queen, or emperor
    on important official occasions.
  1. You can talk about the throne as a way of referring to the
    position of being king, queen, or emperor.
  • //…the Queen’s 50th anniversary on the throne.女王登基 50
    周年回看日
  • //…the heir to the throne.王位继承人

– still/much/even less

used after a negative statement in order to emphasize that it applies
even more to what you say next

  • They are not interested in reading poetry, still less in writing it.
  • I am no-one’s spokesman, much less his.

– lapse

A lapse of time is a period that is long enough for a situation to
change or for people to have a different opinion about it.

  • //…the restoration of diplomatic relations after a lapse of 24
    years

    时隔24年后外交关系的死灰复燃
  • There is usually a time lapse between receipt of new information and
    its publication.
    新音讯的收到与公布时期日常会距离一段时间。

– numberless

If there are numberless things, there are too many to be counted.

  • //…numberless acts of personal bravery by firefighters and rescue
    workers.
    消防员和救援职员数不清的无畏行为

【SYN】countless

– effect

If you effect something that you are trying to achieve, you
succeed in causing it to happen.

  • Prospects for effecting real political change seemed to have taken a
    major step backwards.
    达成真正政治革命的机会如同变得尤其模糊了。

– furnish

If you furnish someone with something, you provide or supply
it
.

  • They’ll be able to furnish you with the rest of the
    details.他们将可向你提供其余的底细。

– commencement

  1. The commencement of something is its beginning.
  • All applicants should be at least 16 years of age at the
    commencement of this course.
    提请修读那门课程者至少要年满16周岁。
  1. Commencement is a ceremony at a university, college, or high
    school at which students formally receive their degrees or
    diplomas
    .

Day 25: Map of different nations

一些地名的排列图 Map 1

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Map 1.png

多少个唐朝文明的大概地方图 Map 2

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Map 2.png

一部分展开地图

– Canaan

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large-map-land-of-canaan-during-book-of-joshua.jpg

– Egypt, Babylon, Mitanni, Hittite, Assyria

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near-east-empires.jpg

– Mesopotamia

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Mesopotamia.jpg

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美索不达米亚.jpg

– Kingdom of Israel and Judah(931 B.C. —586B.C. )

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– Assyrian Empire

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– Elam

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Day 26: Task

Task 1:迦南(巴勒Stan国(the State of Palestine)以色列国(The State of Israel)地区)的重点人种(占据者)

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Canaanites 3000 B.C..jpg

因为图有点大,在导出之后,就不是很清晰了,所以截了大图在上面:

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图一.png

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图二.png

Reference参考文献:

  1. 《明清东方文明》
  2. 维基百科
  3. BibleStudy.org
  4. gotquestions.org
  5. 《巴勒Stan(Palestine)的歷史糾結》林載爵,東海南大学學歷史系

Task 2: 四个圣经传说+八个圣经之外考古证据佐证的资料+巴比伦演进极简图

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Allution.jpeg

– Abraham

1. 好玩的事剧情

亚伯拉罕,道教圣经里面包车型大巴壹位人员,听大人讲是希伯来人的高祖。
希伯来族长之首,为犹太教(Judaism)、道教(克赖斯特ianity)和伊斯兰所尊敬。据《旧约-创世记》(Genesis)所载,Abraham7陆虚岁时受主召唤,离开乌尔城(Ur),教导不孕的爱人撒拉(Sarai)和别的人至迦南(Canaan)建立新国家。神与她定约,其子孙未来会持续那块土地,并化作强国。后来亚伯拉罕果与其妻之婢女夏甲(|Hagar)生下一子以实玛利(Ishmael),之后撒拉生下嫡子以撒(Isaac)。当首供给亚伯拉罕就义以撒以考验其忠实时,他也准备遵命,但主后来态度缓和了。在犹太教里,亚伯拉罕是美德的榜样;在道教里,他是兼备信徒之父;在伊斯兰里,他是穆罕默德的祖宗和宽松的样子(于苏菲宗教〔Sufism〕)。

2. 佐证材质(1)

上世纪 20 时代到 30
时代,由大不列颠及英格兰联合王国有名考古学家列奥Nader·吴雷主持一支英美国共产党同考古队,对苏美尔文明时期的古都乌尔举办了长达
12
年的考古挖掘,取得了令世人瞩目标实际业绩。此次考古行动之所以引起大千世界的大规模关注,不光是因为乌尔是《圣经》中所记载的希伯来人的太岁、先知亚伯拉罕的热土,而且还因为在那边出土了多量地道绝伦的文物,令人们只可以感叹处于历史鼎盛时代的苏美尔文明儿午夜已达到的辉煌。这批古墓葬属于公元前
2600 年至公元前 2500
年的早王朝末代,在一个不出名的王陵出土了迄今截至发现的最大的人殉墓葬。“内涝堆积层”也是二个首要发现,那是考古学家首次在苏美尔遗址中发现洪涝层,这为“洪涝传说”提供了考古证据。
“洪水堆积层”下边还有居住层,当时居民使用一种别具风格的彩陶(“欧贝德彩陶”),那样,对史前考古学也有重马虎义。

3.佐证素材(2)

自从考古学发现汉漠拉比的法律,并在吾珥和纽齐(NUZI伊拉克京城百达城北太平洋公约协会一百里)掘出三千0多块泥砖书,已使大家对于亚伯拉罕时期前后的国惠农活意况,社会习俗有新的认识。

– Moses

1. 旧事剧情

摩西是纪元前十三世纪的犹太人先知,旧约圣经前五本书的执笔者。指点在阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)过著奴隶生活的以色列国人,到达神所预备的流着奶和蜜之地——迦南(巴勒Stan国的古地名,在今天约旦河与台湾海峡的西岸一带),神借著Moses写下《十诫》给她的子民服从,并建造会幕,指引他的子民敬拜他。
Moses最享出名时期很恐怕是西元前十三世纪,因为普遍认为《圣经·出阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)记》中的法老拉丁美洲西斯二世就死于西元前1237年。因为他的名字来自埃及语而不是法语,意思是“小孩子”或“外甥”(Moses在日语的趣味是:从水里拉出来),从她出生不到五百年中,Moses为保有的犹太人所仰慕。
到西元后五百年,他的声誉和声望同伊斯兰教一道传遍澳洲居多所在。
一百年今后,穆罕默德认为摩西是确实的圣人。随着东正教的散播,Moses在一切伊斯兰世界里(甚至席卷埃及(Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt))成了受人向往的人物。Moses在她死后三千多年的前些天,仍同样备受犹太教徒、东正教徒的尊敬,甚至还遭到过多无神论者的敬意。

2. 佐证素材

阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)特首的战车车轮:(在哈得孙湾海底找到)
在以色列(Israel)人过了亚速中国人民解放军海军后勤部,上帝把分手的黑海水又合在一起时,法老的武装部队被淹死而葬身海地。为啥在海水中它照旧那样光滑闪亮呢?它是镀金的。黄金是不生锈或腐化的,甚至在海水中也不会。珊瑚也不可能在上边生长。用那种方法,人们能够看出来,哪些轮子是由黄金做的,哪些不是。
意识车轮的大体地方:埃及(The Arab Republic of Egypt)的Nuweiba海岸处横过里海的“陆地桥”。
在罗斯海陆地桥上找分别到了4根,6根,和8根轮条的战车车轮。
这是镀金的轮子的金子外壳。下图中的大轮为8根的。这种8根条的车,只被用来西汉埃及(Egypt)的第叁七个朝代方今。

– Joseph

1. 传说内容

《圣经》人物。雅各与拉结所生之子。因聪颖得其父偏爱而遭众兄弟嫉恨,众兄将其卖掉,后被带到埃及(Egypt)。因给埃及(Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)法老释梦获得重用,被任为宰相。任职时期埃及仓满粮足。后因其故乡迦南遇饔飧不济,与前来阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)买粮的兄弟相认和平消除,并接其父前往阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)。与其兄弟联手被视为以色列(Israel)十二列祖之一。

2. 佐证资料

图 1.
埃及(Egypt)中王朝晚期的芦苇草纸卷文献,为一家门奴隶名单,计有七十7人奴仆的名字,在那之中四十人是闪族人名。

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在此在此在此以前文《亚伯拉罕的旧事》所述,在亚伯拉罕时代就有那些的迦南人,因着并日而食或从事商业的来由进入埃及(Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)。到了约瑟时期,从迦南及西乃半岛来到埃及(Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)的人造数更多。除了饔飧不济及贸易,更有和平条约瑟一样是被卖到埃及(Egypt)来作奴隶的。从中王朝多量的民间文献看来,当时确已有不少闪族人散居埃及(Egypt)随地。图一所示为埃及(Egypt)中王朝晚期的芦苇草纸卷文献,时间约在中王朝的第壹2与第三3王朝之间。纸卷为一家族奴隶名单,计有7十人奴仆的名字,个中肆九位是闪族人名,如施佛拉(Shiphrah,名同Moses出生时的希伯来接生婆)及米拿现(Menahem,名同《王下》15∶14迦底的幼子)等。而他们的管事人名份是“管理家务”。约瑟在波提乏家,他的名份和职务也是“管理家务”(《创》39∶4)。
在漫天“约瑟故事”之中,并没有明写约瑟拜官的级差。法老也尚未用“宰相”那样的职称来封侯约瑟。但约瑟的地位与职务明显是“治理阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)全地”,职尊1人之下,万人之上(《创》41∶40)。从她的办事范围和她工作的本性看来,即便不是首相,至少是内政、经济、农业秘书长。大家可从考古发掘的埃及(Egypt)“墓画”,来看当时首相封侯的典礼。埃及(Egypt)人爱面子,特别是贵族,总爱将他们生前的丰功伟业刻画在下葬石室的墙上。

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图二所示正是一个人首相(Vizier)封侯墓画∶请看那位新官宰相,仰脸欣赏她被赐的手环,宫女为之穿上新衣,又加上一条既粗且宽而且极有份量的黄金项链挂在他脖子上。那幅墓画,是还是不是和(《创》41∶42-43)中描述约瑟受官职仪极为相似∶“法老就摘入手上打印的指环,戴在约瑟的手上,给他穿上细麻衣,把金链戴在她的颈部上。”
笔者们不亮堂约瑟是还是不是埃及(Egypt)的率先个闪族宰相,但最少知道她不是终极一人。依据由埃及(Egypt)卡那神庙(坦普尔of
Karnack)出土的文献报告,闪族人在新王朝时任职业高中官者大有人在。近期考古学家埃伦哲维(Alain
Zivic)1986年的报告,他们的考古队在某处发掘另一位闪族宰相(Vizier)的墓画,时间是阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)复原历史记载后的新王朝年代。那位闪族宰相名亚Pell(Aper-el),老婆为埃及(Egypt)人。他的史事写在芦苇草纸的档案上,10分详尽。试想一个人活在有那麽详细资料记录朝代的首相,尚且要等到20世纪的80时代末才出土,那麽要找寻第3中衰期没有档案记载的约瑟文献,就要接二连三耐心的等候考古队更久远、流越来越多汗水的结晶了。

“约瑟死了,正1柒岁。人用香水将她薰了,把她收殓在棺材里,停在阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)。”(《创》53∶26)那段叙述是道道地地的“埃及(Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)化”。约瑟的躯体被木乃伊化,那当然是阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)地民俗,也是为着便利以往带回迦南地。约瑟死时1十虚岁,却恰巧是埃及(Egypt)人予以他们的“先圣先贤”的不错寿数,不管他们的确的寿命为啥。无怪乎后世历史家稀奇于“约瑟有趣的事”的撰稿人肯定有不少的“埃及(Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)经验”。若他们确认小编是Moses,而又愿意多读一些圣经,当就知道“Moses学了埃及(Egypt)人的任何文化。”(《徒》7∶22)这一体也就不算“稀奇”了!

– Babylon发展览演出示图

即便早已竭尽的简化,不过内容依然有个别多

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Day 27: Summary & Supplementary Information

Supplementary Information

有局部音信笔者觉着只怕对驾驭小说有帮衬,所以也坐落了此间,作为补偿材质。

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Summary

  • Well, to be honest, this article is really difficult for me, because
    I am really not familiar with history and geography, let alone the
    history of other countries and other areas beside Asia. And the
    first time I read this article, I was struggling with the difference
    between Palestine and Pakistan. They are very similar in accent. But
    after some research, I found that there is no accurate area called
    Palestine. Then, I felt desperate, especially when I have a list of
    nearly 100 unfamiliar words as well as those complicated names of
    Bible figures. Yes, so I spent nearly 3 day to deal with this
    article in order to get through it. And today, I will just share
    something I learnt in this process.

  • First, even though those complicated names really bother me, I get
    to learn much about those stories in the Bible. And I find it a
    little interesting. Well, sometimes it’s just pretty amazing. I
    mean, These stories are related with the history and it’s difficult
    to tell whether they are true or not. But to some extent, it makes
    sense. So I really think the work of archaeology is quite big stuff.
    For example, I am really impressed with the names of those Bible
    figures in my research. And here is a chart to show them.

![](https://upload-images.jianshu.io/upload_images/4950537-3f6b7c5951cf0234.png)

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![](https://upload-images.jianshu.io/upload_images/4950537-00d1e1365518297d.png)

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Well, it's just so amazing. Different people in different nations
are related with the Bible and God. And it seems so sensible.
Sometimes, I can't even tell whether the Bible is just a story or
the reality. It's really interesting.
  • Then, some thoughts of the author really impress me. Like, he said,
    “ the impossibility of forming a correct judgment in regard to any
    one part of it without reference to the rest”. And the author means
    that we can never form a correct judgement without regarding the
    rest part of it. I think this is a very great idea. When you learn
    something, you have to put yourself in the whole system of that
    background, and then you get to know the origin, development and the
    result. It’s an important process. Without it, we may find ourselves
    trapped in those numberless unintelligible things. Take myself for
    an example, I got really confused at first when I read this article
    the first time, but after studying the related background, I feel
    better. And I really have a specific idea of those countries like
    Assyria and Canaan.

  • And, he also said, “He has been warned, too, against making his own
    prepossessions and assumptions the test of historical truth, of
    laying down that a reported fact could not have happened because it
    runs counter to what he assumes to have been the state of society in
    some particular age.” I think this is very right. When we study
    something or try to find the truth of something, we need to be
    object and rid ourselves from our own prepossession so that we can
    make the right conclusion. Otherwise, what we conclude is useless
    because of its subjectiveness.

  • Beside the history of Israel and its surrounding nations, I learn
    more about the method to study. The author put forward a very
    helpful perspective of learning and thinking throughout the article,
    and it’s really beneficial for my future study. I will try to study
    and think like that.

  • After all, I really have learnt a lot in the process. I gained much
    knowledge about the Bible and the history of the Israel, Egypt and
    so on. Even though it’s really complicated and I still couldn’t
    figure out some part of the article until now, but I think my
    efforts will pay off.

  • And great thanks to Annie and Gambition. Thank you for your help and
    direction.

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