化学纤维之路考古学

天鹅绒之路(Silk Road)1

参考资料

http://zh.unesco.org/silkroad/

http://zh.unesco.org/silkroad/network-silk-road-cities-map-app/zh

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丝绸之路是什么样?

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那条东西通路,将中华、西域与阿拉伯、波弗特海紧凑联系在联名。

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涤纶之路(俄语:die
Seidenstrasse),简称为丝路,最早来自德意志数学家费迪南·冯·李希霍芬
(Ferdinand von Richthofen)1877年问世的《中国——作者的远足成果》(China,
Ergebnisse eigener 雷斯en)。
化学纤维之路平日是指欧亚西边的商路,与南方的茶马古道形成对照,宋代时张子文和吴国时班定远出使西域开辟的以长安(今塞内加尔达喀尔)、九江为源点,经安徽、福建,到中亚、西亚,并联合巴芬湾各国的陆上通道。那条道路也被称为“陆路化学纤维之路”,以分别日后其余两条冠以“天鹅绒之路”名称的交通路线。因为由那条路西运的货品中以天鹅绒制品的熏陶最大,故得此名。其主干走向定于两汉时代。
广义的化学纤维之路指从上古初步陆续形成的,遍及欧亚大陆甚至席卷北非和东非在内的远程商业贸易和文化交换线路的总称。除上述路线之外,还包涵约前5世纪形成的草地化学纤维之路,中古初年形成,在北齐发挥巨大作用的水路化学纤维之路和与西北化学纤维之路同时出现,在宋初代表西南天鹅绒之路成为旅途沟通通道的南方天鹅绒之路。
就算化学纤维之路是沿线各国一道推进经贸发展的产物,但不少人以为,中国的博望侯三遍出使西域,开辟了大地互换的新篇章。从此,那条路子就成为了“国道”,各国大使、商人沿着博望侯开通的征途,举行交易。那条东西通路,将中国、西域与阿拉伯、亚丁湾紧凑联系在同步。经过多少个百年的持续努力,化学纤维之路向东伸展到了拉克代夫海。广义上丝路的东段已经抵达了南朝鲜、日本,西段至法兰西共和国、荷兰王国。通过水路还可达意国、阿拉伯埃及共和国,成为欧洲和澳大利亚、北美洲各国经济文化交换的情分之路。

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化学纤维之路是历史上横贯欧亚大陆的交易交通线,在历史上促进了欧亚非各国和九州的友好往来。

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古时一代,在亚马逊河流域、两河流域、印度河流域和密西西比河流域之北的草地上,有着一线由众多不连贯的小圈圈交易路线大体衔接而成的草原之路。那或多或少早就被沿路诸多的考古发现所验证。那条路就是最早的天鹅绒之路的雏形。
早期的化学纤维之路上并不是以天鹅绒为根本交易物资,在公元前15世纪左右,中国商行就已经出入塔克拉玛干沙漠边缘,购买产自现多瑙河地区的和田玉石,同时发售海贝等沿海特产,同中亚地区拓展小圈圈贸易往来。而良种马及其余符合长途运输的动物也开头不住被人们所采纳,令广大的贸易文化沟通成为或然。比如阿拉伯半岛的日常使用,耐渴、耐旱、耐饿的单峰骆驼,在公元前11世纪便用于饭馆运输。而分散在亚欧大陆的雅利安人和斯基泰人据传在公元前31世纪左右即开首饲养马。双峰骆驼则在不久后也被运用在买卖旅行中。别的,欧亚大陆各地是普遍的草野和肥沃的土地,对于游牧民族和商队运输的家畜而言能够随时随处安定下来,就近补给水、食品和燃料。那样一支商队、旅行队或军事可以在沿线各强国没有留神到她们的留存或刺激敌意的气象下,进行漫长,持久而路途遥远的远足。

一 、月氏:(yuèzhī或ròuzhī)为公元前3世纪至公元1世纪二个中华民族名称。早期以游牧为生,住在今中国的湖北附近,并不时与匈奴暴发争辩,到新兴被匈奴攻击,一分为二:西迁至伊犁的,被叫做大月氏;居留于中华江西及湖北的祁连云南北麓内外的,被称为小月氏。这时,月支伊始上扬,逐渐具有国家的雏型。由于大月氏位处于天鹅绒之路,控制着东西贸易,使它逐步变得强大。《汉代书•西羌传》记载:月氏“被服饮食言语略与羌同”,表达月氏的言语很大概属于汉斯拉维尼亚语系。

贰 、祆(xiān)教:即琐罗亚斯德教是风靡于西楚波斯(今伊朗)及中亚等地的宗派,中国史称祆教、火祆教、拜火教。相传为公元前六世纪琐罗亚斯德创。波斯萨珊王朝奉为国教。其教创善、恶二元论,以火为善神的意味。南北朝时传入中国后又称“火祆教”或“祆教”。西魏曾一度于长安建祠盛行,并立官专管。
武宗反佛后渐废不传。琐罗亚斯德教是伊斯兰教诞生在此之前中东和西亚最有震慑的宗派,武周波斯帝国的国教,曾被佛教徒贬称为“拜火教”。琐罗亚斯德教的佛法一般认为是神学上的一神论和教育学上的二元论。琐罗亚斯德教的经典重假使《阿维斯塔》,意为知识、谕令、或经典,通称《波斯古经》。

关于化学纤维之路

简介
人类历史在不停搬迁中发展,随之发生的是累累的商品沟通,以及技巧和商讨的沟通。那样的通信与贸易之路在欧亚大陆上复杂,在历史上逐渐形成了小编们后天所称的化学纤维之路。涤纶之路覆盖着路上和海上交通,来自各种地点的稠人广众在此沿线进行着化学纤维与其余货物的交易。海上丝路将东方与天堂以航线连接起来,是广义上的天鹅绒之路的紧要组成部分。海上之路曾经是贸易香料的显要渠道,后来被人们以香水之路而知晓。
不过那一个巨大的网络承载的不只是货物的交易。频仍的运动和人口的良莠不齐引起了知识、思想、文化和信教的沟通,给亚欧人的历史和学识牵动了远大的震慑。在沿线城市上这样的研商文化沟通不断升华,逐步形成了三个教育与学识核心,吸引着行客们踏上那条商路。自然科学、艺术、管理学以及手工艺和技巧在那里被分享与传播。随之,语言、宗教和知识也在各自发展中互相爆发了震慑。
实则“天鹅绒之路”只是现代的一种叫法。在其漫长的野史中,这条古老的道路并没有3个合适的名字。十九世纪前期,德意志数学家,费迪南·冯·李希霍芬,把那么些商道命名为Die
Seidenstrasse (天鹅绒之路),神秘且令人浮想联翩。

化学纤维的制作与贸易
丝绸是将蚕茧中领到的蛋白纤维编织而制成的纺织品。化学纤维创设技术来源于南陈中华,公元前约两千七百年。作为价值极高的手工制品,化学纤维被中国宫廷保留为御用时装、家纺、横幅以及其余外交赠品。河南省意识的公元前三到四世纪的古墓里出土了一批可以的绸缎,包含锦缎,纱和绢绣,以最古老的全体的丝战胜装。
丝绸的生育进程被严俊保密了约三千年。当时朝廷对民用向别人走漏天鹅绒生产进程的重罚是死刑。中国在制丝业上的垄断并不曾使其消费市镇局限于中国。一方面,天鹅绒作为外交贡品流入他国。另一方面,天鹅绒贸易也一向十三分频繁:开端仅是向邻国销售,而后推广到更远的国家。到西夏(公元前206年到公元220年)时,化学纤维已变成了华夏的重中之重出口产品。近日埃及(Egypt)、北蒙古等地都出土了中华在汉时代的纺织品。
公元前一世纪,天鹅绒传入奥斯陆帝国。化学纤维被视为颇具异国风情的奢侈品而变得极为流行,甚至使得慕尼高阳氏国颁发诏令以决定其价格。化学纤维的盛行一贯被持续到中世纪。当时丝绸既是皇家使用的卓绝面料,也是财政的紧要根源。拜占庭对于化学纤维构建的无情法令规定也展现了化学纤维的卓殊规地点。其余,拜占庭教堂对于丝击溃饰与室内装饰须要也非凡大。因而,天鹅绒成为了欧洲至远东的商路发展的初期引力之一。
至于制丝技术的知识在即时是充裕宝贵的。尽管中国宫廷竭力保密制作方法,这几个地下照旧在中国外传来开来。在公元前6世纪,此项技术率先流传到了印度和日本,接着传播到波斯王国,最终到天国。在公元6世纪,历史学家普罗科匹厄斯描述道:大致在平等时代
[公元前550年],印度的部分僧人来到了开普敦帝国。他们说服了查士丁尼大帝奥斯陆不该再从波斯购买天鹅绒,并落成了她们从中国带回到的养蚕缫丝的技术传授给埃及开罗的签订,以便达拉斯之后拒绝从其敌国波斯恐怕其余任何国家购买化学纤维。这一个僧侣们说在此之前她们在一个新加坡人平时到访的地带,塞里nda,完全了解了创设天鹅绒的方法。其余,僧侣们对频频追问试探他们的主公说,蚕是化学纤维的制笔者,大自然在促使他们不断创设丝绸。虽说不或许平素将火蚕运输过来,可是蚕的培育却很简单。一批蚕卵可以孵化出累累只幼虫,而人们只需在孵化后用粪便盖住幼虫作为保暖,直至它们成长为成虫。僧侣们享受了那一个新闻之后,他们与国君完结了预订并回到了印度。当他俩将蚕卵带回拜占庭,教其上述养殖情势,将蚕卵孵化成幼虫,以树叶来喂养。奥克兰帝国的制丝艺术之路就此先河。

化学纤维之外:涤纶之路商品的三种性
尽管如此化学纤维贸易是中亚商道的最早的催化剂之一,那仅仅是东、西方之间交易的大规模商品中的一类。其余商品包蕴丝绸之外的纺织品、调味品、粮食、蔬菜和水果、动物皮草、工具、木工、五金、宗教物品、艺术品、宝石等等。
在中世纪,化学纤维之路开头风靡,人们的来回越来越多,直至19世纪,人们还在应用那条商道。那不仅表达丝绸之路的根本,还注明其弹性和适应性可以满意不断前进变化的社会要求。那些商道也并从未沿着任何特定道路

商人们频仍自由接纳通向东欧、中东、中亚地区和远东三个地段的不等交通路线。除陆路之外,商人们还足以挑选从中国和东南亚,经由大西洋到欧洲、印度和近东的海上天鹅绒之路。
综观历史,根据时间的推移和地缘政治条件的变迁,化学纤维之路也直接发展。例如,布达佩斯帝国的经纪人们为了回避经过开普敦之敌区帕提亚领土,采用了向西出发,经过高加索地区,途经阿曼湾的途径。相似地,中世纪初期,频仍的生意往来暴发在横跨中亚的河床运输网上。与此同时,那条河道中的水位时而上升时而下跌,有时穷乏,这条交易之路也相应的变换。
海上贸易是立刻另贰个极其主要的世界贸易网络。其最出名的用途是香料运输,来自印尼摩鹿加群岛(以香料岛之名而知名)的铁观音、胡椒、姜、雄丁香和豆蔻须要满世界市集。故海上涤纶之路又被叫做‘香料之路’。商人经由天鹅绒之路,交易纺织品、木制品、宝石、金属制品、香料、木材和藏红花。天鹅绒之路超越十50000英里,从日本西海岸,经过中国海岸线、东南亚和印度一向到中东和红海。海上化学纤维之路连接了阿拉伯半岛,美索不达米亚和印度河流域的,其历史可以追溯到几千年前。在中世纪初,来自阿拉伯半岛的船员们开发并了超过孟加拉湾直到印度洋的新航线,海上丝绸之路网络也就此扩充。实际上,早在八世纪,阿拉伯与中国时期的海上贸易通行已初阶确立。
航海术、天农学和造船术的前进已毕了中远距离的海上旅行。位张一上化学纤维之路沿岸的城市因港口而增加起来,如桑给巴尔,亚历山大,圣Peter堡,和果阿。这个城市平常有来来往往的经纪人和船员以及周边的庙会,也是货物、思想、语言和笃信的置换的骨干,因此成为了财物的相会地。15世纪中期,葡萄牙共和国探险家达伽马,在好望角方圆航行,那是澳大利亚(Australia)水手初次参与东东亚海上贸易。到了1陆 、17
世纪,天鹅绒之路和它的净收入丰饶的交易成为了葡萄牙共和国、荷兰王国和U.K.里头可以竞争的关节。那一个殖民国家给她们拿下的海上之路沿岸港口带来了财物和维持。他们有效治理了海上贸易通道,授权当地权力机构对于须要巨大的进口商品的独占举办管理,并针对商船征收了大宗的税款。
上边地图显示了种种区其余新大陆与海上商道。来自世界外省的生意人靠着这些交通互联网运输交易着品种丰富的商品。商人的驼队经常采取在部分路段停留。他们或稍作歇息、补充用品,或留下扎营做购买销售。那样的停留点遍布整个涤纶之路,沿线城市和港口由此繁荣昌盛。
天鹅绒之路既活跃又有渗透性。商人们与土著做采购,将外来商品卖给当地人的还要也购得并带走各州的土产品。天鹅绒之路不仅仅丰硕了经纪人的物质财富与商品的各本性,还拉动了在化学纤维之路上沿线的知识、语言、思想的互换。

沟通与对话
大概在装有的天鹅绒之路的剧中人物中,最有历史意义的即其对差异地区的大千世界互相交换往来的促进功效。在推行范围上,商人们若要成功地举办谈判就亟须学习他们所经国家的言语微习俗习惯。由此文化沟通是物质交流的一个根本成分。别的,许多行客为了体验沿线城市的学问和文化交换而踏上了那条冒险之路。
跨过天鹅绒之路的沿线区域分享了不利、艺术、历史学以及手工艺和技巧的学识。同时,语言、宗教和文化也在分级的上进中互相影响。通过天鹅绒之路在世界范围内得到传播的最有名的技巧包含造纸术以及印刷术。类似地,由于拿到了行客的就学和传唱,整个中亚地区的灌溉系统普遍具有相似本性。那么些行客不仅带走和传播本人的学识,同时也接到了不一致社会的当麻芋果化技术。
在公元前2世纪,将军张子文开辟了第2个从中国至西方的化学纤维之路。说起这位勇猛,比起贸易开拓者队(Portland Trail Blazers),他更是一位外交官。汉世宗在公元前139年,联盟国外,以抗击中国的祖传仇人—匈奴。张子文被派向南部时,被匈奴抓获并被收监起来。十三年后,他越狱并逃回了华夏,给孝曹孟德讲述了拉长的经历及细节并做了一些详尽的报告。在公元前119年,汉世宗又派张子文拜访邻国,建立多少个最初从中国到中亚的门道。
教派和求知成为了人人沿线的旅行的动机。到印度取经后将圣文带回中国的僧侣们在半路书写的旅行日记,近年来是有关丝绸之路的重大考据。三藏法师在629至公元到654年的25年之间写下的日记不仅具备伟大的历史价值,同时也启示了16世纪神魔小说的出生。“西游记”,即那样一部中国太古的经典之作。在中世纪,澳国的道人胜任外交和教派使团,访问东边。Giovannida Pian del Carpini在1245年至1247年由教皇Innocent
四世派出访问蒙古;随后,佛兰德方济各会修士威尔iam of
Rubruc在1253年至1255年由法兰西国王路易九世派出,再度走访蒙古汗国。其中最资深的应属威罗兹探险家马可(英文名:mǎ kě)·Polo。他的游览约于1271和1292中间,长达20多年。他过世后其书写的游记在北美洲变得极受欢迎。
考古学,跨过所有欧亚大陆的路线是宗教的传入基础。伊斯兰教是天鹅绒之路沿途上宗教传播贰个例证。在阿富汗巴米扬、在中国花果山以及在印度尼西亚婆罗佛陀都留有佛教艺术圣地和佛殿东正教,佛教,印度教,琐罗亚斯德教和一神教以相似的方式传播。行客们接过他们所接受到的知识,并将这一个不相同的学问分享给自身的亲生。如此,印度教和伊斯兰教被经纪人们经过海上化学纤维之路从印度和阿拉伯引入到印尼和马来亚。

走动在化学纤维之路上
天鹅绒之路自个儿的上进基于人们在其区域的通畅往来。在中世纪,马或骆驼是商队在陆路物流上的出众格局。化学纤维之路上的商旅是专程为了大型长途旅行商队所安插的。这个客栈对于那条路径上人和商品的通畅发挥了重点的成效。通过对土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)到中国这一段涤纶之路的考察可得,那么些公寓不仅为客人提供了可口的饭菜和临沧的作息地认为将来的里程做准备,同时也提供了与当地集镇交流货物、贸易和购进地点产品并与任何商户们沟通的平台,促进商家们互动沟通文化、语言和思辨。
趁着天鹅绒之路发展壮大,沿线的事情机会越来越多。饭馆饭馆日渐其需,从10世纪先导,饭馆宾馆的确立遍布了上上下下中亚地区,一直继续至19世纪。这几个饭馆酒店网,从中国延伸至印度陆上、伊朗、高加索、土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)、北非、俄国和东欧国家。其中有的饭馆旅社到现在尚存。饭馆酒馆的职位是按照化学纤维之路上每天的行程来分布的。那样商人和其他行客可以防止数天数夜停留在危机重重的天鹅绒之路上,并维护保护货物的达州。平均每30至40英里就会有一对商旅酒店,周边环境维护较好。
历史上商行在漫长的海上贸易旅程中面临着分化的挑战。至中世纪以来,航海术,特别是造船术的进步,提升了海上旅行的平安。在中世纪,对船员们最大的要挟之一就是缺少饮用水。海上沿线化学纤维之路港口的提升,不仅为经纪人贸易提供做购销的时机,而且保证了淡水供应。商船所面临的另一种危害是海盗。船上利润丰饶的商品往往变成海盗的对象。
化学纤维之路遗产
在19世纪,考古学家、化学家以及一些心花怒放的探险者踏上了天鹅绒的探险之路。来自法兰西、英帝国、德意志、俄国和东瀛,这几个切磋者通过中国西部,今位于西藏的塔克拉玛干沙漠,沿着丝路追寻古迹。因他们的贡献,近来有过多考古学上的意识和大度的学术研究。这个发现使得丝路之历史又再度挑起了世界的爱戴。
至今,许多历史建筑和纪念碑、标志着丝路通道的旅馆商旅、港口和城市尚存。不相同但互相关系的学问、语言、风俗和宗教在丝路上更上一层楼了上千年,恰是历史悠久的化学纤维之路的炫耀。商人们及许多不等国籍的游人的来往不仅在商业互换上,而且在文化融合的进度中,带来了源源并大面积的熏陶。从初期的追究阶段开首,化学纤维之路逐步变成横跨欧亚大陆上,促进社会的多变的推动力。

连带链接:
UNESCO Integral Study of the Silk Roads, Roads of
Dialogue

Recommendations for transnational heritage corridors of Silk Roads site
nomination

Caravanserais
History of civilizations of Central
Asia

21 世纪 新化学纤维之路

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化学纤维之路经济带和21世纪的海上化学纤维之路 (Belt & Road, B&奥迪Q5)
是一项发展战略性和框架, 重点是国家间的连通性和协作,
重如果华夏里头还有欧亚大陆的其余地点它由八个首要组成部分, 陆上
“化学纤维之路经济带” (SREB) 和远洋 “海上天鹅绒之路” (MS本田UR-V)
与战略陈设发表于贰零壹陆年。 自那时以来,
已在这一倡议中开支了众多经济带和征途基本、商讨所、出版物、网站和当局分支机构。中国愿意建立三个新的经济区,
从中国, 包罗富有的国家在亚欧大陆组成的东盟成员国, 印度的亚欧国家,
巴黎协作组织的成员国,中东南非国家, 西亚国度, 澳国和东非的一有个别。
它包罗大概拥有重大的全世界经济实体 (除去美洲, 澳大金斯敦和新西兰, 西非,
韩国和东瀛等与米利坚关系密切的经济体)。

The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road,
also known as The Belt and Road (B&R) is a development strategy and
framework, proposed in 2013 by Xi Jinping that focuses on connectivity
and cooperation among countries primarily between the China and the rest
of Eurasia. It composes of two main components, the land-based “Silk
Road Economic Belt” (SREB) and oceangoing “Maritime Silk Road” (MSR)
with a strategic plan issued in 2015. Since then, numerous Belt and Road
centres, institutes, publications, web sites and Government branches
have been developed on this initiative. In a nut shell, China wants to
create a new economic zone that spans from China to include all the
countries on the Eurasian continents comprising of ASEAN member nations,
Indian Sub continent countries, SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization)
member nations, countries of MENA (Middle East North Africa), West Asian
countries, Europe and part of East Africa. It includes almost ALL of the
major global economic entities minus Americas, Australia and New
Zealand, West Africa, Korea and Japan –political economic powers that
traditionally closely linked with USA .

从地缘政治的角度来看, 中国对欧亚大陆的熏陶,
向来是自U.S.A.撤出阿富汗/伊拉克和苏联崩溃以来的2个权力真空,
以抵消美利坚合作国在亚太地区 re-asserting 的熏陶。尤其是自以前United States总统政党。 其它,
中国采用经济而非军事或知识能力作为万有动力的着力,
因为交易–而非战争–历来是澳大利亚最紧要的区域间纽带。其余,
中国脚下在包涵钢铁、水泥、技能劳引力等的基本功设备领域的壮烈产能过剩,
须要找到出路,
利用其他地点的经济可不止的中坚构造在中华正达到饱和点投资具有合理的经济回报。其余,
中国本人在经济成就上的功成名就–即经济腾飞而不损伤其政治意识形态和布局–或然是许多国家的政治首领的3个欢迎情势。

From a geopolitical perspective, China pivots its influence on Eurasian
Continent, hitherto a power vacuum since US withdrawal from
Afghanistan/Iraq and the collapse of USSR, to counter balance US
influence which is re-asserting in the Asia Pacific region especially
since the Obama Administration. Furthermore, China utilizes economic
rather than military or cultural power to service as the centre of
gravitation as trade–rather than war–has historically been the major
inter-regional bonds in Asia. Also China’s current huge overcapacity in
infra-structure sector, including steel, cement, skill labour and
expertises, needs to find means to utilize elsewhere economic
sustainable infrastructures in China are reaching a saturation point as
further investment with have few justifiable economic returns.
Furthermore, China’s own success in economic achievement–economic
development without compromise its political ideology and structure–may
be an welcoming model for political leaders in many B&R countries.

这一生机勃勃的经济圈涵盖了一部分 mindstaggering 的数目: 它回顾60八个国家, 63%
的大地人口 (44亿), 24% 全世界经济, 和3/10 的满世界 GDP。 中国考虑,
将改成人类历史上最大的贸易畅通格局,
是人类文明中最大的交通系统和交易有关品种,
也是超过最广范围的最大的完好经济网络。分化的社会-种族和政治实体。由于多数的国家仍处于发展阶段,
仍有充足的空中释放他们的经济潜力;假使是那样的话,
它很只怕是本世纪最首要的经济腾飞布署,
因为中国在过去30年的经济神迹。尽管是出于种族、教派和野史由来,
包蕴了比比皆是敌对群体–孔雀之国(伊斯兰教、穆斯林,孔雀王朝)和巴基Stan、犹太人(东正教)和阿拉伯人、伊朗(波斯王朝)和阿拉伯世界(伊斯兰)等,
而且往往是区域冲突的闪点, 似乎近年来的叙比什凯克和 ISIS 的动静一模一样,
中国宛如孵化的中标的 B&Enclave倡议的假如共赢的商业利益通过贸易可以打败甚至逾越的异样,
导致一个由众多区其他国家和团体平时由商业和交易关系组成和谐和兴旺的 B&ENVISION区。中国将只好投入大批量的工本入股, 面临风险, 因为在SREB/MS福特Explorer的道路上,有过多易受伤害的地点和瓶颈点,
并期望有可能出现低甚至负的投资回报, 因为许多 B & Rubicon 国家是惊人 challenged
地点为社会经济前行。中国对一举两得实力超过文化历史差异的设想的乐天态度的底子,
就像是基于中国自己在社会主义背景下爆发的经济成功的经历,
那是缺乏宗教作为社会政治因素.那项中国不负众望的类型, 在那一个宗教是重中之重的,
假诺不是控制社会因素的地段, 还有待验证。

This B&R co-prosperity economic circle contains some mindstaggering
data: it includes 60+ nations, 63 % of global population (44 Billion),
24% Global economy, and 30% of global GDP. China envisions that B&R will
become the largest trade thru-way in human history, the largest
infra-structure in transport system and trade related projects in human
civilization, and the biggest integrative economic network that span
through the widest spectrum of diverse socio-ethnic and political
entities. Since most of the nations in B&R are still in developing
stage, there are still plenty of rooms to unleash their economic
potentials; should that be the case, it may well be the most significant
economic development plan in this Century, after China’s economic
miracles during the past three decades. Even though B&R regions includes
many rival groups due to ethnic, religious and historical reasons–India
and Pakistan, Jews and Arabs, Iran and the Arab world…etc., and are
often flash points of regional conflicts, as in the current case of
Syria and ISIS, China seems to hatch the success of the B&R initiative
on the assumption the win-win commercial interests through trades can
overcome and even transcend differences between rival regional fractions
leading to a harmonious and prosper B&R region composed of many
different nations and groups commonly bonded by commercial and trade
ties. China will have to put in large amount of capital investment, to
face high risk as there many vulnerable spots and bottle necks points
along the SREB/MSR paths, and to expect the possible of low and even
negative investment returns as many of the B&R countries are highly
challenged places for socio-economic developments. China’s basis on an
assumed optimism of B&R initiative on economic power to override
cultural-historical difference seemed to be based on China’s own
experience in economic success happening within a socialist context
which lacks religion as a socio-political factor. Such project of
China’s success onto B&R region where religions are an major, if not
dominating social factor, is yet to be tested.

出于 B 和 中华V贸易节点正在创制并由此交易媒介、高速火车、机场、现代港口和电信系统开展三番五次,
将有众多现有的市场提高为重点的国际贸易中央;那么些骨干将因此交易和劳务,
将数十或几11个连接起来, 作为经济基础结构来创设那一个 B 和 奥迪Q5球体。那个新的都市将有以下职能: 提供设施, 以进步国际贸易, 如运输, 物流,
金融, 数据, 银行, 会计, 翻译, 法律劳动等,
并在同一时半刻间成为区域基本前行辐射影响在四周的区域。
那几个城市将不可幸免地抓住来自 B 和 CR-V社区及另各州面的规范规范人员提供各样服务。别的,
这个城市的外籍人士也将逐步建立起来, 例如, 中国自35年前起始对外开放以来,
在新加坡和迈阿密日益确立了国际侨民。除了这一个外籍人士社区之外,
还索要为她们随同家人提供常备服务,
如高校、商店、娱乐场馆、茶楼、诊所和宗派场馆, 以满意他们的具体必要,
以便有二个稳定的外籍社区辅助越来越多的区域间贸易服务。

As the B&R trading nodes are building up and are connecting by trade
vectors, high speed trains, airports, modern harbours and
telecommunication systems, there will be the upgrading of many existing
towns or cities into major international trading hubs; these hubs will
number several tens or dozens interconnected through trades and services
as the economic infrastructure to shape this B&R sphere. These new
cities will have the following functions: provide facilities to enhance
international trading such as transport, logistics, finance, data,
banking, accounting, translation, legal services …etc. and at the same
time become the centre of regional development radiating influence in
surrounding areas. These cities will inevitable draw specialized
professionals from B&R communities and beyond to provide various
services. Also there will be a gradual build up of these B&R expats in
these cities such as the gradual building up of international expats in
Shanghai and Guangzhou when China began to open up since 35 years ago.
Along with these expat communities, there are need to provide daily
services to them as well as their dependents, such as school, shop,
recreation, restaurants, clinic and religious venues catering to their
specific needs in order to have a stable expat community to support the
increasing volumes of inter-regional trade services.

由于跨区域移徙, B 和 帕杰罗 侨民社区展望将大增,
那一个外籍社区和主人社会之间的动态互动将暴发深入的文化-宗教影响。本文将对那种情状举办预计,
并揣度一些或然的结果。本文所用的基本假使有二种:
一是一矢双穿促进和牵动理论认为,
人类的迁移格局重假设由经济力量创设的–经济条件较差的地带会促使人们离开富裕地区即便有更多的火候获取更好的收入,
富裕地区将掀起众人来得到更好的经济机会和服务。 其次:
人是宗教影响和传唱的主要性活动主体,
大约全数的宗派传教活动。宗教内容必要通过信徒的化身来抒发,
以一种真实的点子来传达教派的新闻, 以引发新的信徒,
因为宗教不仅仅是一套管理学思想, 而是一种生存形式, 必要在生命形式。第③:
由于传教士可能会挑战当地的宗教信仰种类,
像传教士工作这么的蓄意传教活动只怕会加深社会文化紧张。 无意的传教,
如海外侨民社区的留存等宗教信仰的被动证人,
只要这一部落不打乱东道社会近来的社会宗教动态,
就足以有助于社会容忍和三种性。 基于这几个如若, 本文指出, “B 和 路虎极光”
倡议将迎来2个更具宗教多种性的环境, 增加宗教间的浮动关系,
并挑衅中国对商业利益的如若, 那将取而代之了区域间的野史、文化和宗教差别,
经济纽带可以打败社会-宗教紧张关系, 那是神州领导所具有的古板观念。可是,
最初的探讨已经人人皆知地标明, 穆斯林极端主义者是由意识形态造成的,
而不是一语双关上的–贫穷–原因。 中国对繁荣和谐的经济开发区的愿景,
可能会因特定语境下宗教动态的纷纭而发出一般的混杂和冲突的结果。随着全球政治秩序的不断波动,
b 和 r 倡议或者要求日常举办重大调整中国境内的连带移民

With the projected increase of B&R expat communities due to
inter-regional migration, there will be profound cultural-religious
implications between the dynamic interactions of these expat communities
and hosting societies. This paper will speculate on such scenario and
conjecture on some of the possible outcomes. There are three basic
presuppositions used in this paper: Firstly the economic push and pull
theory which suggests that that human migration patterns are largely
shaped by economic forces–areas with poor economic conditions will push
people to leave for rich areas where there are more opportunities for
better incomes, and rich areas will attract people to come for better
economic opportunities and services. Secondly: human being is the main
active agent for religious influences and transmission in almost all
religious proselytising activities. Religious content needs to be
expressed through the embodiment of the believers to convey the
religious message in an authentic way to attract new followers as
religion is more than a set of philosophical ideas but rather a way of
live that needs to be demonstrated in a life form. Thirdly: Intentional
proselytising activities such as missionary work may contribute to the
escalation of socio-cultural tensions as missionaries may challenge the
local religious believe system. Unintentional proselytising such as
passive witness of religious faith like the presence of an expat
community may promote social tolerance and diversities so long as this
group does not upset the current socio-religious dynamics of the hosting
society. Based on this these presuppositions, this paper suggests that
the B&R initiative will usher in a more religious diversity environment,
increase inter and intra religious tensions, and challenge the China’s
assumptions on commercial interests that would supersede inter-regional
historical, cultural and religious differences, and that economic ties
can overcome social-religious tensions, a conventional belief held by
Chinese policy makers. However, initial researches have already strongly
suggested that Muslim extreme fundamentalists are caused more by
ideological than by economic–poverty–reasons. China’s vision of a
prosper and harmonious B&R economic zone may general mix and perhaps
opposing consequences depending on the complexity of the religious
dynamics of a particular context. With the increase fluctuating of
global political order, B&R initiative may need constant major
readjustment B&R related Migrants within China

The economic push and pull factors in human migration has well been
documented in China as more than 150 million China’s internal migrants
are moving form mostly impoverished homeland to prosper regions, from
rural areas to urban cities, and from regional cities to metropolitans,
to seek better economic opportunities. Similar patterns are also
observed in Eurasia as migrant workers such as Filipinos in Gulf States,
Indonesians in Hong Kong, Turkish in Germany, or Vietnamese in Taiwan.
Almost all of these migrants are induced by higher incomes in hosting
nations than in their home countries. The flows are often dynamic
responding to economic changes. For example, as China’s rural areas are
improving in economic opportunities since about five years ago, there
has been a decrease in flow of rural population into the Pearl Delta
areas for factory works, and increase flow of population to the second
tier cities as economic tempo is picking up in those cities while the
major urban canters are slowing down the developmental pace. With the
B&R initiatives, one may expect those cities and regions in China
directly benefitted by B&R will attract domestic skilled labours and
professionals from all over China building up B&R related projects.
Those cities will mostly be the Southern coastal provinces and
South-western boarding provinces for the Maritime Belt and the
North-western Provinces for the Silk Road as illustrated shown by the
following picture

http://www.postwesternworld.com/2015/03/10/chinas-pivot-eurasia/
As for domestic migrants, they will mostly be specialized professionals
engaging in trade, commerce, logistic, telecommunication, finance and
transports, as most of these B&R gateway cities, such as those on
Maritime harbour port cities and bordering region cities, will serve as
commercial and transport hub from the China side for OBOR. There may
perhaps be many construction works for building of infrastructures such
as railway and ports, but these construction workers will leave once the
constructions are completed and not leaving any long-term
socio-religious impacts. However the commercial related domestic
professionals drawn from all over the nation, along with their
dependants, will probably stay on to keep these commercial hubs in
function. These internal migrant professionals will most likely be drawn
from major international commercial centres in China such as Shanghai,
Shenzhen and Beijing, where a vast pool of skilled professionals are
readily available.
The second major pool of migrants will be those expats related with B&R
countries. One may expected to see increasing expat populations from
ASEAN countries aggregated in Yunnan, Central and West Asians in
Xinjiang, Central Europeans in Xian, and many others such as Russians,
Iranians, Thais, Indians, Turks, Hungarians..etc. in cities where trade
opportunities are available. Just as one had seen the gradual building
up of Japanese, American and European expat communities in Shanghai and
Beijing when China began the trading with the West since 25 years ago,
and the increase of Korean expat in Northeast China as China-Korean
trade increases. This group of B&R will significantly increase the
international dimension as well as representation of the current expats
in China who are predominantly represented by Westerners (American,
European, Australians) Japanese and Korean.The third group of new
migrants may perhaps be the professionals drawn from overseas Chinese
population as many of them speak Chinese and come from the Chinese
Diaspora communities; and perhaps most may be drawn from the vast pool
of Mainland students who had studies and worked in overseas with
international trading experience and are now seeking opportunities back
in China. They may have a variety of residency or citizenship along with
different relational contacts in China. They are neither entirely
foreigners nor local Chinese and often form their own overseas returnee
communities in China. May have Chinese nationals as spouses and often
may not be part of the expat community of their citizenship.

B&R migrants in China: religious dynamics and interactions

All three groups will have their different cultural-religious values and
interact with local society in various ways. For the first group of
migrants from major commercial Chinese cities, they carry new ideas and
secular values to these mostly second tier cities which are more
traditional and conservative in social values. For example, a Shanghai
accountant will carry with him or her not only the international
auditing standard, but also the social cultural that favours
international commercial activities such as meritocracy than despotism,
gender equality or liberal gender relations. Strain in cultural
difference will be an growing edge for those hosting cities to strive
for development. The potential religious tension would mostly likely be
in Muslim dominated areas of the North Western regions where Islamic
influence are strong to perhaps oppose non Islamic social values such as
the more casual gender relations popular in coastal regions of China
where Western cultural influence are strongest. Should that be the case,
these Muslim dominated areas in North-western part of China would have
to embrace a more diverse society including the acceptances of the more
liberal social values which may contradict the traditional Islamic
social values in order to sustain the B&R operation on China side. Or
some of the Muslims will find these new domestic migrants as a threat
challenging their traditional religious values, and may find various
means to oppose such new incursion of social values leading to social
unrest.
As for the second group, regardless of where they come from, they will
usually bring along with them their own religious culture into the new
hosting Chinese cities which are officially secular or non-religious, as
B&R region contains the majority of the worlds’ Muslim, Buddhist ,
Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zoroastrian as well as the Orthodox
Christian populations. It is also a place where most of the world’s
relgions are originated. Just as the Muslim traders since the 8th
Centuries built up the Muslim community in Asia for generations, these
new B&R expat communities will stay in those gateway Chinese cities for
prolong period of time necessity for trade . They will bring with them
their dependents, their religious practice and their life styles. A
recent example will be the large expat Muslim communities in Yiwu along
with their own schools, shops, mosques and Arabic speaking community.
These Chinese B&R related cities will have to learn to make provisions
for these new communities along with their perhaps exotic religious
practices. It will be an eye opener for many local Chinese who has
little exposure to world religions and some Chinese may even be drawn as
devotees of these religions, just like many in US and Europe are drawn
into Hari Krishna or the Unification Church (the Moonies) in the 1960s
and 1970s.

There is also a high possibility that the new B&R expat groups in China
may also escalate the already strained inter-ethnic relations, such as
the Turkish merchants in Uyghur dominated Xinjiang may promote the
pan-Turkic sentiment which will indirectly lend support to the East
Turkistan Independent Movement challenging the sovereign claim of China
over Xinjiang. Similarly the Jingpo or Dai expat from Myanmar in Yunnan
may bring along with them their own ethnic-political complications from
the tension between Shan or Kachin Autonomous States with the Myanmar
authorities into China which may further destabilizing the already
fragile China border regions with Myanmar and Laos. After all, the
Jingpo ethnic minorities in Yunnan often identify themselves with their
ethnic Jingpo (Kachin) across the border sharing common language,
tradition and religions for centuries; many Jingpo people in China also
serves in the Kachin Independent Army in Myanmar. One can find many of
such examples as many of China’s ethnic minorities have strong ties with
their ethnic counterparts across the China border with increasing
autonomous or ethno-nationalistic sentiments often enhanced by religion.

For the last major group–Chinese overseas returnees, contemporary
research by Yang Fenggang suggested that a high percentage, as much as
30%, of them seemed to embrace Christian faith while they were living
aboard. Such high percentage of Protestant converts among the returnees
are also cause the increasing number of non-registered urban churches
established in major Chinese cities patron by these Chinese returnees.
Many hold foreign citizenship or residency and technically not Chinese
citizens and are in rather grey areas in terms of religious
administration by the Chinese authorities as they may have spouse who
are not foreign passport holders yet they may worship together in a
technically religious venue for foreigners, and often not formally
registered. Contrary to many of the local non-registered groups by
national are often harassed by local authorities, these new urban based
non-registered Christian groups are supported by rich and powerful
patrons who are well connected not only with senior authorities but also
international religious and commercial networks who serves as a
political umbrella to protest these groups from harassments by local
authorities. Their presence may easily cause socio-religious tension as
their religious gatherings may draw many Chinese, often colleagues or
business partners of these religious returnees, to join Christianity,
and some local Christians may be drawn to these powerful elite
communities for protection from harassment by the authority. If that
will be the case, there will be some forms of Foreign Concession zone in
China’s religion landscape, envy by national Christian groups and
resented by local authorities–a situation that the authority may need
to address in future.

Intra B&R migrations: religious dynamics and interactions

As mentioned earlier in this paper, B&R region contains the largest
population of many important world and ethnic religions. Although China
may be the least religious nation, almost all other B&R nations are very
religious with some even embrace religious values as their national
policies, such as the case of Indonesia and Iran. Also there is a
growing tend to have increasing religious influences to foster national
or ethnic identity especially towards the more conservative branches on
national governance and identity, such as in the case of Turkey of
escalating Turkic identity, India of increasing Hinduism as national
identity, Orthodox belief as the de facto Russian national identity, to
name a few. There are also the emergence of extreme religious groups
imposing religious rules political governance, such as the Taliban
movement and the ISIS. Therefore, with the increasing intra B&R migrant
populations, one would expect the new socio-religious challenges from
B&R expats to various hosting B&R nations. These challenges may range
from merely amusement of observing exotic religious practices by the
locals in a tolerance society, to offensive behaviours in the eyes of
the locals, such polytheistic images and worships in a puritanical
religious society such as Hinduism practice in Saudi Arabia, to
escalation of inter-regional rivals, such as Iranian Shiite in
predominate Sunni’s in UAE.
Also some of the interregional tensions, especially those involved with
already tensed ethnic and religious revival between countries such as
Iran and Saudi Arabia, or Pakistan and India, may also be escalated
through the presence of rival expat communities, as these countries are
competing for regional influence in political, religious and in ethnic
dominancy. Social tension may also increase as the presence of some
expat communities could empower, even unintentionally, local minority
groups to challenge the ruling regime, such as Iranian merchants may
encourage the Shiite in Yemen Shiites to oppose the Sunni ruling tribes,
the Kurds in Turkey, the Tamils in Sir Lanka…etc. There are also the
rise religious identity overshadowing national boundaries such as the
co-ordinated demonstrates of Muslims in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia and
Thailand on 25th November, 2016 to support their co-religious Rohingya
in Myanmar.
Currently there are already countless religious-ethnics flash points in
Eurasian Continent, with many dated back for centuries, which are
currently accentuated by the rise of religious fundamentalism mixed with
emergence of nationalism or ethno-centrism. The basic tenet of B&R
co-prosperity sphere is based on the assumption that trade and
commercial interests will override and even overcome the traditional
religious-ethnic tension among rival groups or rival nations. However
often one observe just the opposite in B&R regional rivals is taken
place, such as Israel and the surrounding Arab nations, or
India-Pakistan in Kashmir, that these intensive conflicts are contrary
to any sound economic reasoning. It seems that this China led B&R
initiative could bring socio-political harmony to this ancient Eurasian
land through trade and economic development, or may usher in an new era
of conflict intensification by inter-mixing rival groups is yet to be
seen.

China-B&R religious dynamics interactions.

The increase of Chinese expat merchant or commercial related communities
in B&R nations will also bring new socio-religious dynamics into these
nations. Although China is an non-religious nation, or having the
largest agnostic population in the world, and one can interprets that
there is no religious connotation as Chinese interact with nationals
from B&R region who are predominately religious. However, nationals of
B&R nations with strong religious sentiments may regards Chinese
merchants who are mostly secularists with secular values who will be
crash with local religious social values. It has been well documented
that some Chinese operate restaurants in Afghanistan are doubled as
brothels and served alcohols to local Muslim youth which infuriated
local Muslim communities. Similarly Chinese run bars and brothels in
Peshawar, Pakistan, for international communities yet were patron by
local Muslim youth which had already caused protests from local Mullahs
leading to the riots and casualties at the Red Mosque in 2007. Also the
perhaps hundreds of Chinese prostitutes in Dubai are currently tolerated
by local authorities so long as the customers are non Dubai national;
but there will come to a point of non-toleration if Dubai nations are
involved. It seems many countries were once welcomed Chinese merchants,
especially since the 1990s till the turn of the Century, are gradually
become ambivalence and even hostile toward Chinese merchants for their
generally profit oriented commercialism in lieu of religious sensitivity
to local culture and values. The prolong lack of religious knowledge and
contact among Chinese population becomes a liability when these secular
Chinese merchants with little religious understanding or sensitivity
encounter with people in societies where religion is an essential part
of the cultural milieu.
Furthermore, the aggressiveness of the Chinese merchants, along with
their usually short business cycles especially the small entrepreneurs,
are drawing increasing negative reception from many B&R countries, from
resentment towards the natural resource exploitation in Myanmar, to
disrespect local religious value (mostly Muslim dominated areas), to
insensitive to local customs such as in Thailand towards Buddhist
customs, and to cause the collapse of local industries such as plastic
manufactures in Morocco, are factors that contribute towards the
international resentments against Chinese presences leading to many
incidents of attacks and expulsion of Chinese expat merchants in recent
years from Kyrgyzstan to Vietnam—both are B&R nations. The State Owned
Enterprises Projects in B&R regions, usually conducting large scale
infrastructure project, are often operated in a hermitic compound with
virtually no social interaction with local communities and Chinese
managers and worker are rather naivety towards local religious customs.
Unless Chinese merchants will have a higher sensitivity on religious
cultural of B&R in general, one may expect that the will be an increase
of negative sentiments towards Chinese merchants in B&R region as
religious values seems to be valued over economic benefits observed from
populations in most of the B&Rs nations–a fact that had not been
appreciated by Chinese who are mostly non- religious and secular in
social values.

Intentional proselytising may escalate inter-religious tensions

Traditional many religions in Asia spreads first through merchants and
then missionaries through trade routes as in the case of Islam’s
spreading to Asia.

There is also a similar pattern in the case of Christianity via Silk
Route in 7th Century to China, or the Sea Route since the 16th Centuries
from Europe to Asia. Also sees the spreading of Manichaeism and
Zoroastrianism from East Asian to China via the Silk Route by both
merchants and religious personnel. Buddhism spread from India to China,
and from China to Korea and Japan, through well established trade routes
developed by inter-regional Buddhist traders. The common scenario was
that as some expat merchants took resident in hosting society, they
brought along with them their religion, be it Christianity or Buddhism.
Such religion caught the curiosity and attention of local inhabitants
and some may drawn to the new religion. As this new religious community
grew in size, with increase in trade hence traders and their dependents,
this community would call for some professional clergies back home to
provide religious formation and instruction for continuous religious
observance. For example, when the Arabic speaking Muslim communities
reached a certain size in Indonesia, they invited Imams back home mainly
to maintain their religious observance especially to their younger
generation than to proselytise others. Eventually, the more zealous
members would actively promote their religion to others, and gradually
professional religious proselytisers (missionaries) are involved in
spreading of this new religion. In the case of Marco Polo, his memories
on China aroused interests of Catholic missionaries leading the eventual
Catholic mission movement from Europe to Asia. Historical evidence
suggest that merchants have been often the and unintentional
proselytiser and they served as precursor of missionaries who are
intentional proselytisers.
Currently there are already many proselytising activities taken within
the B&R regions, from Christians trying to convert believers from other
faiths, especially targeting the Muslims as an reaction to the 9/11
aftermath, to the more Fundamentalist Imams to promote the Wahabbi
branch of puritanical Islam, to Zen Buddhist monks to spread
contemporary Buddhist message targeting intellectuals and business
circles, or the Pentecostal pastors to advocate Charismatic movements
within Christianity. In fact, almost all religious groups are actively
conducting their proselyte activities in both inter-religious circles to
win believers to intra religious sphere to promote certain sects or
branches within a particular religion. It will be obvious for the
intentional proselytisers, regardless of their religious affiliation to
utilize whatever means to advance their missionary activities, such as
trade vectors like B&R.
B&R will provide a great opportunity to these intentional proselytisers
as B&R will established a free-flow inter-connected network in trades,
good, services, finances, data and personnel within this huge region.
Proselytisers will take advantage of this network of trade route,
tagging along with merchants just they had done in the past, to spread
their religious messages to whatever places along the B&R trade routes.
Therefore B&R will greatly enhance the current intentional proselytising
activities, as well as to develop new mission field as B&R will enhance
accessibility to regions hitherto not easily reached by outsiders. In
fact there has already been mission works from Christian groups, many
from non-registered sectors in China, by sending Chinese Christian
missionaries to Central and East Asian to convert the Muslim
populations, and B&R will surely provide a great opportunity for these
mission groups to intensify such movement. From both the historical
evident and current religious dynamics, B&R will induce a more intensify
level of inter-regional proselyte activities escalating the
socio-religious tension of the region and perhaps complicated the
already delicate inter-regional political relations.

Conclusion

华夏集团主的 B 和 酷威 将迎来壹个更连贯的欧亚大陆经济领域,
它大概升高变成2个引领全球经济的经济实体,
特别是当世界两大经济体的走强时, 欧盟正碰着英美出口的挑衅。
随着新的经济机会正在出现, B 和 RAV4区域贸易的加码也将造成区域内和内部的人口迁移扩充。 这一个新移民,
特别是来自别的 b 和 r 国民的人, 他们的古板大多是宗教的,
蕴涵世界上最大的社会风气宗教的人数, 无论是后晋要么当代。
那个新移徙者将无意地将宗教和风俗带入其主人社会,
并将增加社会和宗派的两种性, 并有助于增长本地人口的社会容忍度。 可是,
有意传教的传教士, 古板上根据商人建立的贸易路线, 或添加区域间的商业活动,
将净增当地的宗教动态。 这么些有意的 proselytisers 将征集新的皈依者,
从别的迷信或差其他温和派分支在同样信仰中,
导致更加多的社会宗教紧张关系的掌管社会,
创设更多的特出或新的宗教团体社区经常对地点社区遗憾。其余,
中国群众广泛缺乏宗教经验, 由此宗教敏感性,
大概会对堵住中国和米国关系发展的国家造成负面心绪。因而, B 和 PRADO倡议将推向三个更二种化的社会-宗教社会, 那说不定会推向更高层次的社会容忍,
从而导致三个更和谐的社会, 或许或然使已经紧张的社会-宗教紧张时局升级,
导致破坏性的社会和区域不同。至于中国的新经济蓬勃的愿景,
以取代目前的社会-宗教历史的残破破碎的和不鼎盛的 b 和 r 地区尚有待验证。

对中国的话,
经济进步是一项高风险、高资本、经济回报不分明的行动。宗教层面将增多这些宏伟项目标高风险程度和本金因素。由于美利坚联邦合众国对中国在北冰洋的不通,
中国的天然气供应安全, 巨额外汇储备的积攒, 以及基础设备建设的超能力,
中国被迫采取那种稳定。但是, 随着中国和天底下经济的放慢,
美利坚合众国对华夏施压的只怕减弱, 黄海政治不安缓和, 中东与叙火奴鲁鲁争持加剧,
Britexit 和民族主义欧盟国家的心境, 或然会有一些较小的工本替代方案,
中国的天下事务进入三个不得预言的一代。或然混沌理论能给大家的水晶球出点光–期待意料之外的政工。

The China-led B&R will usher in a more connected Eurasia economic sphere
which may develop into an economic entity leading the global economy
especially when the strengthen of world’s two largest economies, the EU
as it is under challenged by the exit of Britain and USA as the
Present-elected Trump cause uncertainties volatilities in Market, are
weakening in global economic influence. However the increase inter-B&R
region trades will also lead to increase of inter and intra regional
human migrations as new economic opportunities are emerging. These new
migrants, especially those from other B&R nationals which are mostly
religious in values as B&R contains the world’s largest populations of
most of the world religions, be it ancient or contemporary. These new
migrants will unintentionally carry with them religions and practices
new to their hosting societies, and will enhance the socio-religious
diversities as well as to contribute to the increase of social
tolerances of the local population. However the intentional
missionaries, traditionally following the trade routes established by
merchants, or tagging along with inter-regional commercial activities,
will put increase to the local religious dynamics. These intentional
proselytisers will recruit new converts be it from other faiths or
different moderate branches within the same faith, leading to increase
of socio-religious tensions of the hosting society by creating more
extreme or new groups of religious communities usually resented by local
communities. Furthermore, the general lack of religious experience,
hence religious sensitivities, among Chinese population may contribute
negative sentiment against China among B&R nations hindering Sino-B&R
relations. As a result, B&R initiatives will contribute to a more
diverse socio-religious society which may promote a higher level of
social tolerance leading to a more harmonious society, or may escalated
the already strained social-religious tensions, leading to a destructive
social and regional fragmentation. As for China’s vision of a new
economic prosper B&R region to replace the current
socio-religious-historical fragmented and underdeveloped B&R region is
yet to be tested.

For China, B&R is an economic development initiative high risk, high
cost and with uncertain economic returns. The religious dimension would
increase the risk level and cost factors for this grand project. China
is forced to take such orientation due to the US containment of China in
the Pacific, China’s security of oil supply, the accumulating of huge
foreign reserves, and the available of over capacity in building of
infrastructure. However, with the slowing down of Chinese and global
economy, the perhaps decrease of US pressure on China, de-escalation of
political tension in South China Sea, the intensification of conflicts
in Middle East vis Syria and ISIS, the Britexit and nationalistic
sentiments in EU nations, there may be some lesser costing alternatives
for China B&R as our Global Affairs enters into an age of
unpredictability. Perhaps Chaos Theory can shed some lights to our
Crystal Ball–expect the unexpected.

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