forgot那么些被世界遗忘的帝国

Ruled by a dizzying array of kingdoms and empires over the
centuries, the former regional power of Ani is now an eerie, abandoned
city of ghosts

被令人眼花缭乱的王国和王朝统治了某些个百年,Ani的前电力区域现在是一个被撇下的人言可畏的鬼怪城市。

**An abandoned city of ghosts
**

一个幽灵的甩掉城市

Ruled by a dizzying array of kingdoms and empires over the centuries –
from the Byzantines to the Ottomans – the city of Ani once housed many
thousands of people, becoming a cultural hub and regional power under
the medieval Bagratid Armenian dynasty. Today, it’s an eerie,
abandoned city of ghosts that stands alone on a plateau in the remote
highlands of northeast Turkey, 45km away from the Turkish border city
of Kars. As you walk among the many ruins, left to deteriorate for
over 90 years, the only sound is the wind howling through a ravine
that marks the border between Turkey and Armenia.

其一城池被令人眼花缭乱的王国统治了好多少个世纪,从拜占庭王朝到奥斯曼帝国,Ani城一度容纳了无数的总人口,成为中世纪Bagratid亚美尼亚王朝的学问骨干和区域力量。而近日,它是一个可怕的、被废弃的妖精之城,独自站在土耳其(Turkey)边界之城Carl斯45英里之外的长时间的西南高原地区的一座小山上。正如您走过的诸多瓦砾一样,它被遗留在那里不断恶化了90多年,惟一的响声是表明着土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)和亚美尼亚分界线的百般山谷中呼啸而过的阵势。

**The toll of many rulers
**

过多统治者的数额

Visitors who pass through Ani’s city walls are greeted with a
panoramic view of ruins that span three centuries and five empires –
including the Bagratid Armenians, Byzantines, Seljuk Turks, Georgians
and Ottomans. The Ani plateau was ceded to Russia once the Ottoman
Empire was defeated in the 1877-78 Russo-Turkish War. After the
outbreak of World War I, the Ottomans fought to take back northeast
Anatolia, and although they recaptured Ani and the surrounding area,
the region was given to the newly formed Republic of Armenia. The site
changed hands for the last time after the nascent Turkish Republic
captured it during the 1920 eastern offensive in the Turkish War of
Independence.

迎接穿过Ani城墙的游客的是超越多少个世纪、七个朝代的废墟的全貌,包含Badratid的亚美尼亚人、拜占庭、塞尔柱王朝的土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)人、格鲁吉亚人和土耳其(Turkey)人。奥斯曼王朝曾经在1877-1878年的俄国-土耳其共和国战火中被战胜,Ani高原被割让给了俄国。世界一战发生之后,奥斯曼夺回了东南的安纳托利伯维尔,尽管他们再一次夺回了Ani及其周边地区,不过那片区域被给了新建立的亚美尼亚共和国。这么些地方在1920年发出于土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)北边的土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)独立战争中被土耳其共和国(Türkiye Cumhuriyeti)共和国主政后最后五次转手。

**A hotly contested territory
**

一片炙手可热的幅员

The ruins of an ancient bridge over the Akhurian River, which winds
its way at the bottom of the ravine to create a natural border, are
fitting given the vexed state of Turkish-Armenian relations. The two
countries have long disagreed over the mass killings of Armenians that
took place under the Ottoman Empire during World War I, and Turkey
officially closed its land border with Armenia in 1993 in response to
a territorial conflict between Armenia and Turkey’s ally
Azerbaijan.

Akhurian河流上的石桥废墟,蜿蜒在溪水底部,创设出了一个自然边界,正好适合了土耳其(Turkey)和亚美尼亚狼狈的国家关系。八个国家直接以来都不能针对世界第一次大战里头奥斯曼王朝对亚美吉亚人的雅量大屠杀达成一致意见,土耳其共和国合法在1993年对亚美吉亚封锁了土地边界,来回应亚美吉亚和土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)盟友阿塞拜疆之内的版图争端。

**A bid to save the ruins
**

为了抢救废墟

Although the focus on Turkish-Armenian tension preoccupies most
discussion of Ani, there’s an ongoing effort by archaeologists and
activists to save the ruins, which have been abandoned in favour of
more accessible and less historically contested sites from classical
antiquity. Historians have long argued for Ani’s importance as a
forgotten medieval nexus, and as a result, Ani is now on a tentative
list for recognition as aUnesco World Heritage
Site
**
.
With some luck and careful restoration work, which has begun in 2011,
they may be able to forestall the hands of time.

**

就算对土耳其共和国(Türkiye Cumhuriyeti)-亚美吉亚紧张关系的关切引起了对Ani的热议, 考古学家和
积极分子们照例在时时刻刻不断地拼命救死扶伤那片废墟,就算它被大千世界舍弃,来帮助这些进一步使得,有更少历史争辩的史前遗址。历国学家短期抵触Ani作为被淡忘的中世纪关系的关键,结果,现在Ani暂时被列入世界文化遗产的清单了。因为部分运气和从二〇一一年始于的明细修复工作,他们也许可以抵挡时间之手。

**‘The City of 1,001 Churches’
**

1001个教堂之城

At its height during the 11th Century, scholars estimate that Ani’s
population reached as high as 100,000 people. Artistic renderings
based on the site’s archaeological findings show a bustling medieval
centre crowded with myriad homes, artisanal workshops and impressive
churches scattered throughout.

Known as “The City of 1,001 Churches”, Ani’s Armenian rulers and city
merchants funded an extraordinary number of places of worship, all
designed by the greatest architectural and artistic minds in their
milieu. Although the nickname was hyperbole, archaeologists have
discovered evidence of at least 40 churches, chapels and mausoleums to
date.

在11世纪的辉煌时期,学者们估摸Ani的人数最多可以达到10万人。基于考古发现的艺术表演显示了一个蜂拥的中世纪主题,充满着各个住房、手工作坊和分流的令人映像深切的教堂。

1001个教堂之城成名,Ani的亚美吉亚统治者和都市商人建立了大气的手工作坊,所有的都是来自于城市主旨最非凡的建筑和措施思维。即便那个昵称是夸大说法,可是考古学家们曾经发现了最少40个教堂、小礼堂和帝王陵作为凭证。

**An imposing cathedral
**

一个壮观的大教堂

A rust-coloured brick redoubt, the Cathedral of Ani looms over the
now-abandoned city. Although its dome collapsed in an earthquake in
1319 – and, centuries later, another earthquake destroyed its
northwest corner – it is still imposing in scale. It was completed in
1001 under the reign of Armenian King Gagik I, when the wealth and
population of Ani was at its peak. Trdat, the renowned Armenian
architect who designed it, also served the Byzantines by helping them
repair the dome of theHagia
Sophia
.

一个锈色的磁砖多面堡,Ani大教堂朦胧地涌出在已经被废除的城池中。就算它的圆屋顶在1319年的地震中已经坍塌了,多少个世纪之后,另一场所震摧毁了东北一角,但是按照比例来看,它依旧卓殊壮观。它是在亚美吉亚圣上加吉亚一世的统治之下,在1001年已毕的,那时Ani的财富和人数都曾经抵达了极限。设计那个大教堂的头面亚美吉亚建筑师杜德,也为拜占庭王朝服务,支持她们收拾圣Sophy娜的圆屋顶。

**Half of a church
**

主教堂的一半

Only one half of the Church of the Redeemer remains – a monument to
both the artistic prowess of the Armenian Bagratid Dynasty and the
inevitability of time. Propped up by extensive scaffolding now, the
church was an impressive architectural feat when it was built. It
featured 19 archways and a dome, all made from local reddish-brown
volcanic basalt.

唯有只剩余耶稣教堂的一半还在,作为亚美吉亚巴格拉提德王朝精湛的不二法门和岁月必然性的惦记。教堂现在被大批量的脚手架支撑着,当初被建造的时候是一个令人纪念深切的修建功绩。它以19到拱门和一个圆屋顶著称,都是由红蓝色的火山黄南充制作而成。

本条教堂还放置着耶稣被定死的十字架的零碎。相传,那么些教堂的赞助人Ablgharib
Pahlavid王子在君士坦丁堡参观拜占庭法庭时得到了一件遗物。

**A church fit for a prince
**

跟王子相关的教堂

Built sometime in the late 10th Century, the Church of St Gregory of
the Abughamrentsis a stoic-looking, 12-sided chapel that has a dome
carved with blind arcades: arches that are purely for embellishment
instead of leading to a portal. In the early 1900s, a mausoleum was
discovered buried under the church’s north side, likely containing the
remains of the church’s patron, Prince Grigor Pahlavuni of the
Bagratid Armenians, and his kin. Unfortunately, like many of the sites
at Ani, the prince’s sepulchre was looted in the 1990s.

St 格雷戈里 of the
Abughamrentsis教堂建于10世纪末期,一副禁欲主义的模样,12个小礼堂,每个小礼堂都有一个钻探着弧形图案的圆屋顶:拱门纯粹是当做装饰的,而不是用于当大门。在20世纪初期,一个墓葬被发觉埋在教堂的背面,极有可能有教堂的赞助人亚美尼亚Grigor
Pahlavuni of the
Bagratid王子的遗物和她的同族。不幸的是,像Ani的多多遗址一样,王子的墓葬在20世纪被盗了。

**The remnants of an underground city
**

一个地下城的遗留之物

Opposite the Church of St Gregory of the Abughamrentsare a series of
caves dug out of the rock, which some historians speculate may predate
Ani. The caves are sometimes described as Ani’s “underground city” and
signs point to their use as tombs and churches. In the early 20th
Century, some of these caves were still used as dwellings.考古发现,

在St 格雷戈里 of the
Abughamrentsare教堂的反方向的一种类洞中,被挖出了一些岩石,很多历国学家推断那一个岩石可能早于Ani。那些洞穴有时候被描述成Ani的野鸡之城和标志标明他们被看作墓穴和教堂。在20世纪初期,其中的一部分洞穴还被用作民居。

Frescoes cover the walls

有手表的礼拜堂

The Church of St Gregory of Tigran Honents is one of Ani’s best
preserved buildings, adorned with remnants of paintings depicting
scenes from the life of Christ and St Gregory the Illuminator.
Detailed fresco cycles did not ordinarily appear in Armenian art of
the era, leading scholars to believe the artists were most likely
Georgian.

St 格雷戈里 of
TigranHonents教堂标志着山间的警戒将土耳其共和国和亚美吉亚区分开来。受到一个富家的信托建于1215的礼拜堂被确立的时候,格鲁吉亚王国的统治者将Ani当成亚美吉亚统治者血统The
Zakarians的领地。春季的时候,孤独的礼拜堂在天边无边无际、冰雪覆盖的亚美吉亚草原的衬托下形成了惶恐不安的光景。

**Frescoes cover the walls
**

水墨画覆盖着墙壁

The Church of St Gregory of Tigran Honents is one of Ani’s best
preserved buildings, adorned with remnants of paintings depicting
scenes from the life of Christ and St Gregory the Illuminator.
Detailed fresco cycles did not ordinarily appear in Armenian art of
the era, leading scholars to believe the artists were most likely
Georgian.

St 格雷戈里 of Tigran
Honents教堂是Ani保存的最好的建筑之一,被描述基督生活和圣格里高利装饰的画作的残留物装饰着。详细的水墨画周期并未现身在亚美吉亚办法时代,使得我们们相信那个音乐家是格鲁吉亚人。

**An Islamic minaret still stands
**

一个清真塔尖照旧伫立不倒

The Seljuk Empire – a Turkish state in Anatolia that drove out the
Byzantines and eventually gave way to the Ottoman Empire – controlled
the greater area of what is today northeast Turkey and Armenia
beginning in the mid-1000s. However, in 1072, the Seljuks granted
control of Ani to an Islamic dynasty of Kurdish origin, the
Shaddadids. The Shaddadids, in turn, left their mark on Ani with
buildings like the mosque of Manuchihr, which is perched precariously
on the edge of the cliff. Its minaret is still standing from when the
mosque was constructed in the late 1000s; the rest of the mosque is
most likely an addition from the 12th or 13th Centuries.

塞尔柱王朝,土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)的一个州安纳托利伯维尔赶走了拜占庭,最后让位于奥斯曼帝国,控制着更广大的地面,包含前些天的土耳其(Turkey)东北部和开首于11世纪中叶的亚美吉亚。可是,在1072年,塞尔柱王朝把控制下的Ani变成了库尔德王朝的的起点the
Shaddadids。The
Shaddadids反过来在Ani留下了她们的标志性建筑,比如清真寺,被建于山崖边缘,极不安全。它的尖塔从11世纪末年清真寺被确立就间接伫立不倒,清真寺的剩余部分很有可能是从12世纪或者13世纪被增进的。

**Origins up for debate
**

来源的争持

The original purpose of the mosque of Manuchihr is debated on both the
Turkish and Armenian sides. Some contend that the building once served
as a palace for the Armenian Bagratid dynasty and was only later
converted into a mosque. Others argue that the structure was built as
a mosque from the ground up, and thus was the first Turkish mosque in
Anatolia. From 1906 to 1918, the mosque served as a museum of findings
from Ani’s excavation by the Russian archaeologist Nicholas Marr.
Regardless of the building’s origins, the mosque’s four elegant
windows display spectacular views of the river and the other side of
the gorge.

土耳其共和国和亚美吉亚双方直接争辩Manuchihr清真寺创立的最初目标。有些人觉着这一个建筑已经是亚美吉亚巴格拉提德王朝的一个宫廷,后来偶尔被改造成清真寺。还有人争辨到那么些建筑一起首建成清真寺,由此是在安纳托温尼伯的第四个土耳其共和国(Türkiye Cumhuriyeti)清真寺。从1906年到1918年,那么些清真寺被俄国考古学家尼古拉斯Marr当成Ani考古发现的博物馆。不管这一个建筑最初的渊源是什么样,清真寺的多个优雅的窗子显示了河水和山谷另一面的壮观视角。

**Once formidable city walls
**

曾经令人生畏的城墙

Ani’s city walls may seem ready to crumble, but when they were
constructed in the 10th Century, they made for a formidable defence.
The Bagratid family of kings built them in order to fortify their new
capital and, over the centuries, they protected the city’s occupants
against siege after siege by various armies. These ramparts, along
with Ani’s inhabitants, witnessed bloody conflicts between the
Bagratids and the Byzantines, and the Byzantines and the Seljuks.

Despite Ani’s history as a field of warfare, the ruins also represent
many periods throughout history where the city saw a remarkable
interchange of cultures, religions and artistic motifs.

Ani的城墙看起来已经快要崩塌了,不过当他俩在10世纪被建造的时候,他们致以着强大的守卫成效。巴格拉提德王朝的天子们建造他们是为了设防于他们的新首都,几个百年过去了,它们爱惜着城内的居住者抵挡分裂的武装部队四回又一遍的围攻。那么些壁垒伴随着Ani的居住者,见证了巴格拉提德王朝和拜占庭王朝,拜占庭王朝和塞尔柱王朝之间血腥的争持。

固然Ani的历史是一部战争史,这个残垣断壁也意味了历史长河中的很多阶段,在那些等级中,那座城市见证了文化、宗教和办法的卓著发展。

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